Can you fix this prospectus so it can be approved by the committee?

STUCK with your assignment? When is it due? Hire our professional essay experts who are available online 24/7 for an essay paper written to a high standard at a reasonable price.


Order a Similar Paper Order a Different Paper

Prospectus

Is there a relationship between
students’ level of motivation to perform academically and students’ level of
academic performance in a language arts classroom?

Shenita
Russell

EdD Doctoral
Study– Educational Leadership

A0004900


Prospectus: Is
there a relationship between students’ level of motivation to perform
academically and students’ level of academic performance in a language arts
classroom?

Problem Statement

A lack
of student motivation is a concern within public school districts in the
elementary, middle and high school classroom setting (Hossainy, 2012).  While a lack of student motivation is not
easy to define, it is easy to observe (Thoman, 2013).  Recent reports from educational researchers
within the US Department of Education recognize the unmotivated student as one
whose attitude toward school is a lack of interest or concern (NCES, 2010).  The lack of interest or concern is
demonstrated in the avoidance of school work and a level of disinterest in the
educational environment (Terry, 2010). 

The
national concern for a lack of student motivation within the educational
environment prompted an action plan for the development of a model of learning.
In 2010, educational researchers within the US Department of Education developed
an action plan known as The National Education Technology Plan 2010
(NETP).  The model of learning described in the action plan necessitates
the need for engaging and empowering learning experiences for all learners. The
model suggests that educators focus what and how they teach to match what students
need to know, how they learn, where and when they will learn, and who needs to
learn. The model was designed to incorporate state-of-the art technology into the
learning environment to enable, motivate, and inspire all students, regardless
of background, languages, or disabilities, to achieve, thus fostering
continuous and lifelong learning (NCES, 2010).

The National Center for School
Engagement (NCSE) partnered with school districts, law enforcements, the
courts, and state and federal agencies to support youth and their families in
improving student motivation and engagement within the learning
environment.  In an effort to improve
student motivation and resolve the issues concerning low academic achievement,
the purpose of the study was to examine how motivation is defined and how to
measure student motivation.  The study
used twenty-one instruments and focused on the age ranges of the participants
of the study.  Through data collection
analysis, researchers were able to identify a decline in student motivation at
both the middle and high school level (NCSE, 2009). 

Even
more recently, the reports from educational researchers from state’s Department
of Education across the country has determined best practices in instructional
delivery as one of the essential components to motivating and preparing
students for college and career readiness. 
Results from the reports have acknowledged the significance of student
motivation for aiding student academic success in these college and career
readiness programs. From 2012-2014, educational researchers within state’s
Department of Education worked to develop an educational plan referred to as
Task Based Learning (TBL).  The framework
for TBL comprised of pre-task activities, a task cycle and language focus all
designed to provide instruction that is engaging and motivating.  The framework requires a shift from
student-based to task-based learning suggesting that educators create tasks
that prompt students to use and apply learning to 21st century
scenarios (The Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, 2015).   

The U.S.
Department of Education reported on a study conducted by researchers from the
University of Western Sydney.  The focus
of the report was to bring awareness to the need to consider student
motivation, especially as it relates to male students.  The purpose of the project study performed by
researchers from the University of Western Sydney was to inform educational
best practices for teachers and to aid development of school curriculum
designed to address the needs of male students in the elementary and middle
grades.  Research participants consisted
of case studies from fifteen different schools. 
The conceptual framework of the study was developed by University of
Western Sydney researchers, Dr. Andrew Martin and Dr. Geoff Munns (Munns, 2004;
Munns & Martin, 2005) was the MeE Framework.  The Motivation, engagement, Engagement
Framework was used as part of the project analysis of student motivation and engagement.  Through data collection and analysis,
researchers were able to determine key psychological and sociological factors
that contributed to motivation in male students.  Some of the strategies identified included
learning environments in which students were given whole-class tasks to
complete and learning environments in which student motivation was a
school-based initiative (Munns & Martin, 2005).

 Currently, questions concerning why students
remain unmotivated in the classroom is a focus of recent educational research with
the state of Georgia (McQuown, 2011).  Educational
research within the Georgia Department of Education suggests that a lack of
student motivation may be associated with students’ intrinsic motivation to
perform well in the classroom and on high stakes assessments.  The reports from the educational research
indicate that whether intrinsic motivation was high or low for a student, there
was some bearing on student achievement being high or low for that student (Thoman,
2013).  Under the premise of student
motivation and accountability, the educational researchers within the Georgia
Department of Education (GADOE) worked to create a rigorous college and career
readiness curriculum (adapted from Common Core) along with a teacher effective
measurement system (TEMS) designed to ensure that instructional delivery was
engaging and motivating for all students. 
 Results from data collection of
state mandated high stakes assessments centered on standards-based
instructional delivery utilizing the rigorous curriculum and teacher
evaluations determined student achievement is linked to student motivation and
school accountability (Schraw, 2010). Data collection results also indicate the
growing concern regarding a lack of student motivation in the middle grades (6th-8th)
(GADOE, 2015). 

At the
local level, the concern of a lack of student motivation focuses on the middle
grades because the middles grades have proven to consist of being a pivotal
academic time for students in which assessment scores in content areas such as
language arts and classroom performance have a bearing on retention, classroom
placement and college and career readiness indicators at the high school level
(McQuown, 2011).  Public school systems
within the state of Georgia, such as, Atlanta Public Schools (APS), have worked
to analyze instructional best practices designed to motivate and engage
students in the content required for college and career readiness.  Unfortunately, many educators are not aware
of instructional strategies for measuring and fostering student motivation,
especially within the middle school classroom (APS, 2014).

Purpose

  The
rationale for the correlational study is to determine if there is a
relationship between student’s level of motivation and student’s level of academic
achievement in middle grades language arts classroom. 

Significance

The proposed
research study is significant because it has the potential to contribute to
existing theories on the correlation between levels of student motivation and
levels of student academic success. 
Those who will benefit from the study are students, teachers, school
administrators and school board officials. School board officials will benefit
from the study by gaining an understanding into what motivates students and
thus what them to make policy changes on curriculum mandates.  If school officials make policy changes to
curriculum design that takes student motivation into consideration, the
potential exists for a lack of student motivation to decrease. 

Until
changes in school policies such as No Child Left Behind (2001), Common Core
(2009) and even more recently, Teacher Keys Effectiveness System (2012), school
board officials did not focus on student performance (Gemberling, Smith, &
Villani, 2009; Marzano & Waters, 2009).  Student academic achievement and student
performance was primarily under the guide of the state superintendent and staff.  The paradigm shift in school accountability
has moved toward localized control.  School
board officials now share in the responsibility of student learning and are
held accountable for student academic performance, most commonly through the
use of standardized testing (Gemberling et al, 2009; Marzano & Waters, 2009).
 Student performance results are often
reported to state authorities to determine if changes to the curriculum and/or
teacher training and evaluations are necessary. 
Additionally, performance results are shared with community members as a
way of determining the effectiveness of school and board leadership.

With
changes to the curriculum design that take student motivation into
consideration, teachers may be able to effectively implement strategies to
motivate students to learn.   Teachers’ abilities to motivate students to
learn has been termed teacher self-efficacy. 
Research studies
on teacher self-efficacy have used the conceptual framework of Bandura’s (1994,
2002) notion of self-efficacy.  Teacher
self-efficacy has been defined as the level of competency and level of
confidence a teacher has in his or her ability to promote students’ learning
(Bandura, 1994).

According to a research study
conducted by Skaalvik & Skaalvik (2010), teachers with high self-efficacy will
implement strategies to motivate students to learn such as providing
opportunities for student communication by using a variety of learning
strategies and tasks to meet the needs of all learners (working individually,
in pairs, and in groups).  Results from
the study also indicate that teachers with high level of self-efficacy are more
likely to divide the class into small groups rather than teaching the class as
a whole, thereby allowing the opportunity for more individualized instruction
(Tschannen-Moran, 2010)

Additionally, students will benefit
from a learning environment that fosters behaviors that contribute to
motivating students resulting in academic success.  According to Gardner’s motivation theory
(1985) students are motivated to learn and achieve when they perceive their
teachers care about them.  Findings from
the case study suggest the concept of teachers who care create learning
environments that promote democratic interaction styles, developing
expectations for student behavior in light of individual differences, modeling
a “caring” attitude toward their own work, and providing constructive
feedback.

Researchers with Stanford
University also conducted a research study of a learning environment that takes
student motivation into consideration.  Results
from data collection of the case study of middle grades students showed
students benefited learning environments that take student motivation into
consideration.  Students benefit because
they are encouraged to understand the content. The learning environment and
instructional strategies were designed to treat students’ misunderstandings in
the subject and different visual aids were utilized in order to make the
subject more enticing and meaningful. Additionally, within the learning
environment, students were given opportunities to engage in conversations and were
given purposeful feedback rather than non-descriptive scores on assignments (Stipek
et. al., 2002).

More recently, researchers for the
National Education Association (NEA) conducted studies on 21st
century learners with regards to student motivation (NEA, 2013).  Research results indicate that a lack of
student motivation is more prevalent in non-lab content areas such as language
arts, thus, further research to gain knowledge of how to motivate students in
the non-lab content areas is significant. 
Knowledge of factors contributing to student motivation in the classroom
as it relates to academic success may prove useful in guiding decisions made
pertaining to curriculum and instruction (NEA, 2013The proposed research study is
significant in understanding the impact of student motivation on academic
achievement and posing questions to guide further studies concerning student
academic success.  Certainly, there is a
need to understand what motivates students to perform well in the classroom and
on high stakes assessments. 
Understanding what motivates students, how they are motivated and ways educators
can utilize motivational strategies within their instructional practice is
valuable in the field of education (NEA, 2013). 
 

Background Literature

Educational
trends such as accountability, college and career readiness, along with
motivating the 21st century learner have shaped the current focus of
curriculum standards and instructional delivery (NEA, 2013).  The U.S
Department of Education along with state Departments of Education researchers
work to develop curriculum standards with an emphasis on rigor and
instructional strategies that move students toward self-efficacy.  As part of the attempt to ensure that
students move towards self-efficacy, educational systems at the state and local
level also have a goal of ensuring that every child can learn (US DOE, 2011).
While the educational system at the national level is aiming towards ensuring
that students are successful, there is also a concern at the state and local
level that student motivation to perform at proficiency is declining (GA DOE,
2013).  Research studies within state
departments of education address the issues of moving toward self-efficacy,
increasing rigor in the classroom and increasing student motivation.

Student motivation defined

The
unmotivated student is one whose attitude toward school is a lack of interest
or concern.  The lack of interest or
concern is demonstrated in the avoidance of school work and a level of
disinterest in the educational environment (Terry, 2010).  Recognizing the unmotivated student requires
identifying the characteristics of a motivated student.  The motivated student is one who is not
afraid to try for fear of making mistakes. 
The motivated student will take risks and accept challenges versus
viewing the sometimes routineness of learning tasks, this student will think
outside of the box and produce work that is of quality.  The motivated student is also one whose
basic needs have been met thus equipping them to have a desire to learn and a
willingness to complete the tasks at a level of proficiency.  Conclusions from research suggest that
student motivation can be defined on the basis of factors that contribute to
motivation such as the students understanding that any amount of effort equates
to a positive outcome on learning (McTigue, 2011). 

What causes a student to be self-motivated?

A
question often asked in the learning environment is how I can motivate this
student to learn.  The answer stems from
the notion that the student must be self-motivated.  Self-motivation means that the student enters
the learning environment with a desire to be a part of the learning and willing
to contribute to their own academic success.

Research
indicates that what motivates students to learn is a concept referred to as
“voice and choice.”  Another contributing
factor to student motivation is engagement and learning tasks that pique the
student’s curiosity.  Research studies
for varying grade levels concluded several key concepts that attribute to
student motivation.  The key concepts
include student “voice and choice”, how relevant the learning is to the
student’s interests, how involved the teacher is with the subject matter being
taught, significance of feedback, varying instructional delivery and how often
students are encouraged to complete tasks (Brophy, 2013) (Laskey, 2010).

Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation

Two
schools of thought exist with regards to motivation.  In other words, there are two types of
motivated student.  One type of motivated
student is the one who is intrinsically motivated.  The intrinsically motivated student is the
one who wants to learn for the sake of learning.  Recognizing the intrinsically motivated
student requires looking at the student who set goals for themselves, wants to
be an integral part of the learning environment.  The intrinsically motivated student comes
prepared, seeks understanding and extends learning beyond the classroom.  Conversely, the extrinsically motivated
student is one who achieves for others. 
The extrinsically motivated student wants good grades to please parents
or receive some reward or tangible gift. 
While the extrinsically motivated student will come to class prepared,
the willingness to be a part of the learning environment is fostered by the
desire to receive a reward for being in the learning environment versus
contributing to the learning.

One key
concept states that when lessons appeal to a variety of learning styles and
consist of varying modes of instructional delivery, students are engaged
because they feel in control of their learning. 
Maurer, Allen, Gatch, Shankar,
and Sturges (2013) examine intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in students.  The participant group in the study consisted
of undergraduates in three different courses. 
The data collection instrument was archival data final course grades
along with results of the Academic Motivation Scale which included questions
about study habits and efforts.  The
implications of the results of the study indicated that each factor had a
significant impact on student motivation at varying degrees. 

McTigue
and Liew (2011) examined student motivation in a language arts classroom.  The hypothesis of the study was the use of
research-based strategies that foster self-efficacy within the classroom could
also motivate reluctant middle school readers to perform in a language arts
classroom.

Bembenutty
(2012) interviewed Professor Allan Wigfield who serves as chair of the
Department of Human Development at the University of Maryland.  The interview focused on Wigfield’s research
on children’s motivation.  The conclusion
of the interview indicated that Wigfield’s studies determined that children’s
motivation was developed based on the expectancy-value model of motivation

Keklik
and Erdem-Keklik (2012) expressed an opposing view of intrinsic and extrinsic
motivation.  Their study examined
motivation within the high school setting. 
A participant group of 318 high school volunteers completed motivational
and learning strategies questionnaires. 
Results of the questionnaires along with demographical data analyzed
through data collection instruments ANOVA and MANOVA indicated that student
motivation factors were limited to grade level.

Additionally,
Leaper and Brown (2012) examined student motivation when social and personal
factors were present.  A participant
group of 579 ethnically diverse teenage girls were selected for the study.  Participants completed a questionnaire about
their academic achievement, beliefs about their academic ability in
Math/Science based classes versus English (liberal arts) based classes and
values and experiences concerning school. 
The hypothesis in the study indicated that student motivation would vary
from a Math/Science based class in comparison to an English (liberal arts)
based class.  The implications of the
results of the study indicated that social and personal factors can have a
positive effect on student motivation.

Learning environments that motivate

Creating
a learning environment that motivates requires establishing what is known as
sustained motivation.  Achieving
sustained motivation requires a partnership between teacher and student.  While the teacher cannot make a student self-motivate,
an environment can be created that fosters natural self-motivation.  The motivating environment would provide
opportunities for students to feel a sense of autonomy, a sense of a connection
to the classroom and school and a sense of being capable of to master the
challenges of school.

The
research has determined that teacher-student relationships while establishing a
motivating learning environment are a factor in student motivation to perform
within the classroom and on high stakes assessments.

Bintz
(2011) inquired through the use of the exploratory research design method the
question of whether or not the curriculum is the problem, solution or both to
factors relating to student motivation. 
The purpose of the study was to examine whether or not “way-in” books
are an effective means to supplement curriculum requirements to motivate
students in the middle school language arts classroom.

Little (2012) analyzed the curriculum framework compared
to gifted student motivation.  The
implications of the results of the study concludes with findings to answer the
question of which strategies and learning environments best motivate students
receiving advanced learning instruction.

Thoman, Smith, Brown, Chase and Lee (2013) examined the
correlation between student motivation and stereotyping.  The study focuses on how stereotyping of
underrepresented and over-stigmatized students effects their motivation in the
classroom and beyond.  The significance
of the study expressed the connection between self-efficacy and feelings of a
sense of belonging to the learning environment. 
Participants in the study were observed over long periods of time and it
was determined that positive or negative experiences within the learning
environment had a lasting effect on student motivation.

McQuown (2011) examined factors that contributed to
student academic success.  The study
participants included six fifth grade students who took part in pullout
enrichment activities.  Students selected
for the study were ones who at the start of the experiment lacked motivation
and focus.  Data was collected in the
form of teacher observations, student surveys, and tests.  Results of the study were used to indicate
whether or not being placed in an enrichment room was essential enough in
increasing motivation and focus to yield student academic success.

Hossainy, Zare, Hormozi, Shaghaghi and Kaveh (2012)
conducted a study with a university undergraduate participant group of
thirty-four randomly selected psychology majors.  The purpose of the study was to test the
hypothesis that situated learning would increase learning and student
motivation.  The data collection process
consisted of archival data from school achievement tests and
questionnaire.  The implications of the
results of the study indicated that situated learning did increase learning and
motivation when compared to lecture-based learning.

Inkaya,
Boz, and Erdur-Baker (2012) investigated the use of case-based learning (CBL)
versus traditional chemistry instruction as a means of increasing student
motivation.  The participant group of
forty-five 10th grade high school chemistry students was randomly
selected.  25 students were a part of the
experimental group (case-based learning) and 20 were a part of the control
group (traditional instruction).  As part
of the study, both groups were given pre and posttests along with classroom
instruction.  The data collection
instrument used to determine the results was a one-way MANOVA and a motivation
questionnaire.  The implications of the
results of the study indicated that the use of CBL students showed gains in
test scores and the questionnaire indicated that those experimental group
participants were more motivated to learn in the classroom.

Kucuk and Sahin (2013) examined the concept of learning
centers in the context of a learning community as a means of increasing student
motivation.  The conceptual framework
examined in the study was the Community of Inquiry (CoI) Framework as both a
face to face and a blended (online and face to face) learning model.  The participant group consisted of 109
undergraduate students who took part in the face to face (control) or blended
(experimental) learning model.  As part
of the data collection process, students were given pre and posttests and an
analysis of the content being delivered was conducted.  Based on the results of the study, data
collected did not indicate a significant difference in control group versus
experimental group academic success; however, there was some significant
difference in student motivation.

Shankar-Brown
explained in a research study the impact of incorporating photo journals as
part of learning tasks within all content areas.  The study’s participant group consisted of
randomly selected middle school students who were identified as being reluctant
learners.  The study results were used to
indicate the implications of utilizing photo journals as a learning tool and
the impact they had on students, teachers and researchers.

Shumow,
Schmidt, and Zaleski (2013) discussed in their research study the correlation
between student motivation and academic success during lab activities versus
other classroom activities.  The
participants in the study were high school students.  Each student was observed and work for the
learning task was analyzed.  Results of
the study showed a comparison between student engagement and motivation when
completing a lab-based activity versus a lecture-based activity.  The results were also used to determine the
increase in student learning was more present during lab-based activities as
compared to lecture-based activities.

Velez and Cano
(2012) described the correlation between verbal and nonverbal cues and student
motivation.  The purpose of the study was
to examine the relationship between the importance of the task as related to
students through verbal and nonverbal cues from the teacher compared to student
motivation to complete the task. The significance of the study was to
demonstrate to teachers that there was a positive relationship between verbal
cues of the importance of the task and the increase in student motivation.  The results of the study indicate the more
teachers express the importance of a learning task; the more likely students
were motivated to complete the task.

Ziegler and Moeller (2012) examined
self-regulating learning.  The purpose of
the study was to determine if the incorporation of portfolio-based assessments
would increase self-regulated learning. 
The participant group consisted of 168 undergraduate students in either
a French or Spanish class.  The research
design was quasi-experimental and was conducted over one semester.  Students were given pre and post
questionnaires to determine whether or not the incorporation of portfolios
motivated students to actively participate in the learning process.  The data collection results were used to
analyze student performance on the portfolio assessments versus student
performance on unit tests.  The
implications of the study results promote the use of portfolios to aid in
student self-regulated learning.

According to the literary review,
teacher-student relationships are also essential in providing instructional
strategies that motivate students to achieve self-efficacy.  The research provides insight into the use of
instructional strategies.  Instructional
strategies are designed to provide learning experiences that include rigor to
move students toward self-efficacy and performing at proficiency on high-stakes
assessments.  In terms of student
motivation, the literature review describes studies that determine the need for
instructional strategies that provide students with choice and a voice as to
the learning experiences they take part in.

Framework

The theoretical framework for this
study will be Maslow’s Motivation Theory (1954).  Maslow’s theory addresses both extrinsic and
intrinsic motivation based on a hierarchy of needs.  Maslow’s theory is relevant in education due
to the desired goal of wanting all students to learn.  Based on the framework of Maslow’s theory, both
extrinsic and intrinsic motivation would exist for students whose needs were
being met.  In a classroom setting, these
needs may consist of a student feeling safe and accepted in the learning
environment along with the sense that their voice will be heard, they have
choices, they understand what they gain from what is being required and they
sense that the teacher is also invested in their learning.   

The conceptual framework for this
study will be the self-efficacy model (Bandura, 1977).  Bandura’s theory is relevant in education
based on the belief that individuals have the ability to exhibit behaviors that
yield successful performance.  The
self-efficacy model is based on the belief in one’s own abilities to understand and
complete a task aside from intrinsic or extrinsic motivation (McTigue, 2011).

Both the theoretical and conceptual
frameworks explanation of the need for student motivation in a middle grades classroom
presents a validation that a lack of student motivation in a middle grades
classroom is an educational concern.  The
concern stems from a rise in increasing school accountability and school
improvement.  Studies indicate that there
is an impact that high stakes assessments has had on student achievement.  Research also indicates the results of the
effect of high stakes assessments on student achievement are linked to student
motivation and school accountability. 

Research
Question

Research question (quantitative)

Is there
a relationship between students’ level of motivation and students’ level of academic
success in middle grades classrooms?

Null Hypothesis

There is
no relationship between students’ level of motivation and students’ level of academic
success in middle grades classrooms. 

Alternative Hypothesis

There is
a positive correlation between students’ level of motivation and students’
level of academic success in the middle grades classrooms.

Research Methodology and Design

A correlational research design will
be used for this study.  Utilizing a
quantitative research approach is beneficial for the purposes of this study.  Quantitative research tests and validates
already existing theories about how and why a phenomenon occurs.  In general, a correlational study is a
quantitative method of research in which the researcher has two or more
quantitative variables from the same group of subjects, and they are trying to
determine if there is a relationship (or covariation) between the two variables
(a similarity between them, not a difference between their means).  In theory, any two quantitative variables can
be correlated (for the purposes of this study, students’ level of motivation
and students’ level of academic success) as long as the researcher has scores
on these variables from the same participants. 

The researcher must take into
consideration that it is not feasible to collect and analyze data when there is
little reason to think these two variables would be related to each other.  Another factor in increasing the validity of
the research is to have at least thirty participants.  In a correlational research design, the
researcher’s hypothesis will be that there is a positive correlation (for the
purposes of the proposed study, students’ level of motivation and students’
level of academic success), or a negative correlation (for the purposes of this
study, students’ level of motivation and students’ performance on high stakes
assessments).  In a correlational
research design, a positive correlation would be an r = +1.0 and a negative
correlation would be an r= -1.0, while no correlation would be r = 0.  In a correlational research design, perfect
correlations would almost never occur with the exception of correlations much
less than + or – 1.0.  The researcher
must take into consideration that correlation cannot prove a causal
relationship, however, it can be used for prediction, to support a theory, or to
measure test-retest reliability. 
Additionally, the researcher may collect
data through testing (for example, performance scores on a state mandated
assessments such as district Benchmarks, or psychological tests such as
motivational level indicators, numerical responses on surveys and
questionnaires. Archival data can be used (for example, content area grades) as
long as the data is presented in a numerical form.

Sampling

The greatest limitation
of correlational research is the problem of interpreting causal relationships.  Sampling is a procedure in which a specified
number of elements are drawn from a sampling size that represents an actual
representation of the possible elements in the population. The researcher’s
ability to generalize from the sample to the population depends essentially on
the extent to which the sample has the same characteristics as the population.  The researcher’s ability to represent the
population is obtained by using probability sampling rather than nonprobability
sampling.  In simple random sampling, the
most common type of probability sampling is the one in which every element is
equally likely to be included in the sample. Stratified random sampling is used
when analysis of subsamples is of interest. 

In correlational research
design, survey research may also be utilized to make generalizations.  Survey research demonstrates the principles
of correlational research and it provides an accurate and efficient means for
describing people’s thoughts, opinions, and feelings. While surveys differ in purpose
and scope, they generally involve sampling and the results obtained for a
selected sample are used to describe the entire population of interest.  The researcher can generalize based on random selection and
an array of populations.  For the
purposes of this study, generalization will be based on the random selection of
participants of students in middle grades classrooms. 

Data Analysis

In correlational research design,
data analysis consists of two or more scores collected member of the sample,
one score for each variable of interest and the paired scores are then
correlated.  The correlation coefficient
indicates the degree of relationship between the variables of interest.  For the researcher, the use of a spreadsheet
program (such as Excel), makes calculating correlations one of the easiest data
to analyze. In Excel, the researcher would set up three columns: Subject #,
Variable 1 (for example, performance scores on a
state mandated assessments such as district Benchmarks), and Variable 2
(for example, psychological tests such as
motivational level indicators exam scores). The researcher will then
enter and determine if the correlation is significant taking into consideration
the number of participants.

Correlational Quantitative Design

The
quantitative design used in the study will be correlational research design
approach.  For the proposed study, correlational
research is designed to show a relationship between students’ level of
motivation and students’ level of academic success in the middle grades language
arts classrooms.  Correlational research
examines whether two factors are naturally related.  The proposed study will use correlational
research to examine if motivation and success are naturally related.  In the correlational research design,
positive correlations indicate that an increase in one variable is associated
with an increase in the other variable. 
Additionally, negative correlations indicate that an increase in one
variable is associated with a decrease in the other variable.  For the proposed study, the positive
correlation indicates that as a student’s level of motivation increases a
student’s level of academic success in the middle grades language arts
classrooms also increases.  Additionally,
the negative correlation would indicate that student’s level of motivation
decreases a student’s level of academic success in the middle grades language
arts classrooms also decreases.  The
researcher will determine when the negative correlation exists when the
statistical value of -1.00 exists, no correlation is determined when the
statistical value is 0.00 and positive correlation when the statistical value
is 1.00.

Archival
data may be used in correlational design research as long as it is in numerical
form.  For the purposes of this study,
student grades in content areas before and after the incorporation of
instructional delivery that incorporates motivational factors will serve as
archival data.  The quantitative research
design instrument, in the form of archival data of student grades in content
areas prior to the incorporation of instructional delivery that incorporates
motivational factors will be used to analyze the variables associated with a
positive correlation between students’ level of motivation and students’ level
of academic success in the middle language arts classrooms.  The survey tool used to
collect data is the Attention, Relevance, Confidence, and Satisfaction (ARCS)
model (Keller, 1979, 1983), which was designed to express effective ways to
understand what influences motivation to learn. The ARCS motivational model was
field tested in teacher education programs and results were found to be useful
in determine what attributes to motivation. 

Instrument

The
survey selected is the ARCS (Attention, Relevance, Confidence, and
Satisfaction) model developed by John Keller (1979, 1983).  The ARCS model survey will allow the
researcher to express ways to solve issues surrounding the lack of motivation
to learn and to determine which types of instructional delivery methods that incorporated
motivating factors participants believe was used most often.

Population

The
population for the proposed study will consist of 7th grade students
from a middle school in Georgia.  During
the 2013-2014 school year, the student body consisted of 440 7th
graders divided among four different teams. 
The following school year, the student body for the 7th grade
increased by 20 % due to the restructuring of local school districting.  The subsequent year, the 7th grade
only saw an increase in the student body by 5% due to the mandate to return
students to their home school of record. 
Each year, each team consisted of students will varying educational
levels from general to high achiever to gifted/advanced.  Three of the four teams consisted of 120 students
whose educational levels ranged from general to high achiever and one team
consisted of 80 students whose educational levels ranged from high achiever to
gifted/advanced.  A stratified sample of
20% of all students will be chosen from the students who received language arts
instruction when student motivation was a key factor.  Sample selection will be conducted through
simple random sampling.  Simple random
sampling allows the researcher to arrive at valid conclusions about the entire
population.  For the purposes of study,
24 students will be selected from the larger teams and 16 students from the
smaller team. 

Sampling

A
purposeful sample size consisting of 10 participants from the quantitative
study will be selected.  Participants
will have received language arts instruction utilizing at least two forms of instructional
strategies that incorporated student motivation factors and agree to
participate in the study.  For the
purposes of this study, a purposeful sample size was selected to make the participant
group easier to handle.  The goal of the
study is credibility for the use of instructional delivery methods that
incorporated motivating factors within the language arts classroom.  The researcher is not attempting to
generalize for the entire population.

Possible Types and Sources of Information or Data

Instrumentation

  As
part of the quantitative data collection process for this sequential
explanatory study, students will complete a survey.  The survey will be administered to a small
group of participants was designed to understand the experiences of those who
received instruction in a language arts classroom that utilized instructional
strategies designed to focus on student motivation factors.  The survey will utilize the Likert-scale
model, in which, students will rate their experiences on a scale of 1-5.  The questions will allow the researcher to
determine how student participants who have received instruction in language
arts classrooms that incorporate instructional strategies designed to focus on
student motivation factors describe their experiences. 

  The
survey design utilized for the purposes of the proposed study will be used to
measure levels of student motivation when instructional strategies designed to
focus on student motivation factors are utilized in the language arts
classroom.  The survey selected is the
ARCS (Attention, Relevance, Confidence, and Satisfaction) model developed by
John Keller (1979, 1983).  The ARCS
motivational model was designed to express effective ways to understand what
influences motivation to learn and express ways to solve issues surrounding the
lack of motivation to learn.  The ARCS
motivational model was field tested in teacher education programs and results
were found to be useful in determine what attributes to motivation. 

Questions
will ask participants which types of motivational strategies utilized in their middle
grades language arts classroom they believe were the most often used.  Participants will be asked which of those
types of instructional strategies designed to focus on student motivation
factors they believed kept them engaged in the learning tasks.  Participants will be asked if they believe
the use of instructional strategies designed to focus on student motivation
factors in their language arts classroom helped them to better master
content.  Participants will also be asked
if they believe using instructional strategies designed to focus on student
motivation factors in the language arts classroom lead to increased academic
success in the classroom and on the high stakes assessments.

Tools

  The
survey tool used to collect data is the Attention, Relevance, Confidence,
Satisfaction (ARCS) model (Keller, 1999), which was designed to express
effective ways to understand what influences motivation to learn.  The survey tool was chosen due to cost,
ease of use, accessibility and analysis tool. 
The ARCS tool is available for free online for the purposes of research
and development.  The ARCS tool is
suitable for secondary and post-secondary students.  Additionally, the ARCS tool can be adapted to
fit specific educational settings being used in a research study.  The use of the ARCS tool will allow the
researcher to determine how motivated students are in an instructional
classroom with the use of instructional strategies designed to focus on student
motivation factors.  The ARCS survey will
allow the researcher to determine which types of instructional strategies
designed to focus on student motivation factors participants believe were used most
often.  The ARCS survey will allow the
researcher to determine which of those types of instructional strategies
designed to focus on student motivation factors participants believed kept them
engaged in the learning tasks.  The ARCS
survey will allow the researcher to determine which of instructional strategies
designed to focus on student motivation factors participants believed helped
them to better master content. 
Additionally, The ARCS survey will allow the researcher to determine if
participants believe using instructional strategies designed to focus on
student motivation factors in the language arts classroom lead to increased
academic success in the classroom and on the high stakes assessments (Keller,
1983). 

References

Adams-Budde, M., Howard, C., Jolliff, G., & Myers, J.
(2014). Examining the Literacy Histories of Doctoral Students in an Educational
Studies Program through Surveys and Interviews: A Mixed Methods Study. Journal
Of Scholarship Of Teaching And Learning
, 14(1), 109-125.

Bembenutty, H. (2012). An
Interview With Allan Wigfield: A Giant on Research on Expectancy Value,
Motivation, and Reading Achievement. Journal Of Advanced Academics, 23(2),
185-193. oi:10.1177/1932202X12436610

Bintz, W. P. (2011).
“Way-In” Books Encourage Exploration in Middle Grades Classrooms. Middle
School Journal
, 42(3), 34-45.

Brophy,
J. E. (2013). Motivating students to
learn
. Routledge.

Brunvand, S., & Byrd,
S. (2011). Using VoiceThread to Promote Learning Engagement and Success for All
Students. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 43(4), 28-37.

Caruth, G. D. (2013). Demystifying Mixed Methods Research Design: A Review
of the Literature. Online Submission,

Creswell, J. W. (2012).
Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and
qualitative research
(4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Doabler, C., Smolkowski, K., Fien, H., Kosty, D. B.,
Cary, M. S., & Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness, (.
(2010). Instructional Interactions of Kindergarten Mathematics Classrooms:
Validating a Direct Observation Instrument. Society For Research On
Educational Effectiveness
,

Guba, E. G., Lincoln, Y. S. (2005). An Introduction to
Research, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Haynes, J. C., Robinson, J. S., Edwards, M. C., &
Key, J. P. (2012). Assessing the Effect of Using a Science-Enhanced Curriculum
to Improve Agriculture Students’ Science Scores: A Causal Comparative Study. Journal
Of Agricultural Education
, 53(2), 15-27.

Hossainy, F. N., Zare, H., Hormozi, M., Shaghaghi, F., & Kaveh, M. H.
(2012). Designing and Implementing a Situated Learning Program and Determining
Its Impact on the Students’ Motivation and Learning. Turkish Online Journal
Of Distance Education
, 13(2), 36-47.

Hung, C., Hwang, G., & Huang, I. (2012). A Project-Based Digital
Storytelling Approach for Improving Students’ Learning Motivation,
Problem-Solving Competence and Learning Achievement. Educational Technology
& Society
, 15(4), 368-379.

Inkaya, E., Boz, Y.,
& Erdur-Baker, Ö. (2012). Is case-based instruction effective in enhancing
high school students’ motivation toward chemistry?  Science Education International, 23(2),
102-116.

Jung, J. Y., McCormick, J., Gregory, G., & Barnett, K. (2011). Culture,
Motivation, and Vocational Decision-Making of Australian Senior High School
Students in Private Schools. Australian Journal Of Guidance And Counselling,
21(1), 85-106.

Keklik, I., &
Erdem-Keklik, D. (2012). Examination of High School Students’ Motivation and
Learning Strategies. Hacettepe University Journal Of Education, 42238-249.

Kissinger, J. S. (2013). The Social & Mobile Learning Experiences of
Students Using Mobile E-Books. Journal Of Asynchronous Learning Networks,
17(1), 155-170.

Kucuk, S., & Sahin, I. (2013). From the Perspective of Community of
Inquiry Framework: An  Examination
of Facebook Uses by Pre-Service Teachers as a Learning Environment. Turkish
Online Journal Of Educational Technology – TOJET
, 12(2), 142-156.

Laskey, M. L., & Hetzel, C. J. (2010). Self-Regulated Learning,
Metacognition, and Soft Skills: The 21st Century Learner. Online Submission.

Leaper, C., Farkas, T.,
& Brown, C. (2012). Adolescent Girls’ Experiences and Gender-Related
Beliefs in Relation to Their Motivation in Math/Science and English. Journal
Of Youth And Adolescence
, 41(3), 268-282.

Lin,
Y., & Jou, M. (2013). Integrating Popular Web Applications in Classroom
Learning Environments and Its Effects on Teaching, Student Learning Motivation
and Performance. Turkish Online Journal Of Educational Technology – TOJET,
12(2), 157-165.

Little, C. A. (2012). Curriculum as Motivation for Gifted Students. Psychology
In The Schools
, 49(7), 695-705.

Maurer, T. W., Allen, D., Gatch, D. B., Shankar, P., & Sturges, D.
(2013). A Comparison of Student Academic Motivations across Three Course
Disciplines. Journal Of The Scholarship Of Teaching And Learning, 13(5),
77-89.

McQuown, A. (2011). Focus and Motivation: Two Contributing Factors That
Lead a Student to Academic Success. Online Submission.

McTigue, E., & Liew,
J. (2011). Principles and Practices for Building Academic Self-Efficacy in
Middle Grades Language Arts Classrooms. Clearing House: A Journal Of
Educational Strategies, Issues And Ideas
, 84(3), 114-118.

Murakami, Y. (2013). Rethinking a Case Study Method in Educational
Research: A Comparative Analysis Method in Qualitative Research. Educational
Studies In Japan: International Yearbook
, (7), 81-96.

Nair, S. S., Tay, L. Y., & Koh, J. L. (2013). Students’ Motivation and
Teachers’ Teaching Practices towards the Use of Blogs for Writing of Online
Journals. Educational Media International, 50(2), 108-119.

National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2010). Trends in
academic progress: Three decades of student performance. Washington, DC: U.S.
Department of Education. http://nces.ed.gov/
nationsreportcard/pdf/main2005/2005464.pdf.

Petkov,
M., & Rogers, G. E. (2011). Using Gaming to Motivate Today’s
Technology-Dependent Students. Journal Of Stem Teacher Education, 48(1),
7-12.

Shankar-Brown, R. (2011).
Actively Engaging Middle Level Students with Photo Journals. Middle School
Journal
, 43(2), 24-31.

Shumow, L., Schmidt, J. A., & Zaleski, D. J. (2013). Multiple
Perspectives on Student Learning, Engagement, and Motivation in High School
Biology Labs. High School Journal, 96(3), 232-252.

Siegle, D. (2012). Embracing E-Books: Increasing Students’ Motivation to
Read and Write. Gifted Child Today, 35(2), 137-143.

Stipek, D.(2002).Motivation
to learn: From theory to practice (4th edition).(pp. 272 pages). Needham Heights, MA:
Allyn & Bacon.

Terry, K. (2010). Compliance, Commitment, and Capacity: Examining
Districts’ Responses to No Child Left Behind. Planning And Changing, 41(1-2),
80-109.

Thoman, D. B., Smith, J. L., Brown, E. R., Chase, J., & Lee, J. K.
(2013). Beyond Performance: A Motivational Experiences Model of Stereotype
Threat. Educational Psychology Review, 25(2), 211-243.

Unver, G., Bumen, N. T., & Basbay, M. (2010). The Effectiveness of a
Secondary Teacher Education Graduate Program According to Administrators,
Faculty Members and Students. Educational Sciences: Theory And Practice,
10(3), 1807-1824.

Velez, J. J., & Cano, J. (2012). Instructor Verbal and Nonverbal
Immediacy and the Relationship with Student Self-Efficacy and Task Value
Motivation. Journal Of Agricultural Education, 53(2), 87-98.

Wong, K., Osman, R. b., Goh, P. C., & Rahmat, M. K. (2013).
Understanding Student Teachers’ Behavioural Intention to Use Technology:
Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) Validation and Testing. Online Submission

Xu, Y. (2014). Becoming Researchers: A Narrative Study of Chinese
University EFL Teachers' Research Practice and Their Professional
Identity Construction. Language Teaching Research, 18(2),
242-259.

Ziegler, N. A., &
Moeller, A. J. (2012). Increasing Self-Regulated Learning Through the
LinguaFolio. Foreign Language Annals, 45(3), 330-348.
doi:10.1111/j.1944-9720.2012.01205.x

Writerbay.net

Everyone needs a little help with academic work from time to time. Hire the best essay writing professionals working for us today!

Get a 15% discount for your first order


Order a Similar Paper Order a Different Paper