Can you write me a 1500-1700 word paper (excluding word limits) for me? Please find the below attachment for the instruction and will provide you readings after I hire you.

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Can you write me a 1500-1700 word paper (excluding word limits) for me? Please find the below attachment for the instruction and will provide you readings after I hire you.

Can you write me a 1500-1700 word paper (excluding word limits) for me? Please find the below attachment for the instruction and will provide you readings after I hire you.
For the final report, like the first one, can you choose three topics from the subjects I’ve covered and in each case make a comparison between Britain and Japan. You should make use of material from the classes, but also add your own ideas and maybe research (but if you use other sources, please be sure to list them at the end). Write about 500 words on each of the 3 topics, to make a report about 1,500 words in all.
Can you write me a 1500-1700 word paper (excluding word limits) for me? Please find the below attachment for the instruction and will provide you readings after I hire you.
Week 14 ENGLAND AND THE IDEA OF CULTURAL STUDIES INTRODUCTION—READ THIS CAREFULLY BEFORE THE CLASS In this class you have been studying culture. In many of your other classes the word “culture” has probably been used, too. Cultural Studies is, in fact, the fastest-growing university subject in the world. Nevertheless, the word “culture” is surprisingly complicated, and it is not always clear what it means, or why we should study it. To many people today culture means something like “lifestyle,” but if that is ALL it means, then why do we need the word at all? Before the lecture, think about what “culture” means to you. If you hear someone mention, say, “French culture” or “Russian culture” what sort of ideas come into your mind? In the class we’ll think about different definitions of culture, and learn about how and why different kinds of culture were studied in the past. The modern idea of “Cultural Studies” was not developed until the 1950s, and it was developed in England, though it has since become very international. This final lecture should make you think about “the point” and the value of the sort of things you have learned in this class. Hopefully it will also help you think about “the point” and the value of other classes you are taking. Part One: What is “Culture”? Three Definitions (i) The modern English word “culture” comes from the German word “kultur.” This was first used by Johann Gottfried Herder (1744-1803) and other German writers of the late 1700s to describe the “spiritual nature” of a nation or group of people. (ii) Soon afterwards, other German writers, such as Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767-1835), began using the word “kultur” in a different sense, and one closer to its Latin root, cultivus. They used it to describe the greatest artistic achievements of humans, and the ability to appreciate them. To them “kultur” was connected with study and “self-cultivation.” (iii) Since the 1950s the word “culture” has been used to describe everything humans do and make. In particular it has been used to describe the tools and mechanisms that define and shape individuals in a social environment (fashion, media, cinema, popular music, magazines, etc.). Part Two: What kind of Culture has been Studied in England? And Why? (1) Before the 1950s the STUDY of culture was mainly limited to (ii) above (with a little bit of (i)). But this study changed over time, partly because of changing ideas about what the greatest intellectual and artistic achievements of humans actually were, and partly because of changes in the institutions where those studies were undertaken. (a) Before the 1700s the only culture seriously studied in Western Europe was the literature of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome (culture ii). Learning Latin was considered to be the most important part of education. (b) In the 1700s serious interest began to be taken in modern and national culture (culture ii). “Something significant happened, shortly after 1750 … art and literature ceased to be recreations, and became studies, devoted … to the nurturing and refining of the soul” (Roger Scruton, An Intelligent Person’s Guide to Modern Culture, 1998). At this time there was published in England: Horace Walpole’s Anecdotes of Painting in England (1762-4), Thomas Warton’s The History of English Poetry (1774-81), and Charles Burney’s A General History of Music (1776-89). In the 1700s, too, serious books about other countries and cultures (culture i, ii, and a bit of iii) began to become popular—Englebert Kaempfer’s History of Japan (1729) is a good example. Books like this began to make clear what was distinctive about British culture (culture i, ii, and even iii). (c) In the 1800s, as the range of subjects taught in universities increased dramatically, the study of modern and national culture (culture ii) became increasingly common and organised. As you’ve learned already, in 1859 University College London became the first university in the world to offer a degree in “English Literature.” By the early 1900s the study of English Literature had become one of the most popular and fast-developing university subjects. (2) Since the 1950s the study of culture has grown to include culture iii above, and since 1964 the study of culture iii has been specifically called “Cultural Studies.” By the 1980s “Cultural Studies” had become the fastest-growing academic subject in the world. Ideas developed within “Cultural Studies” were by this time being used in the older and more specialised cultural studies (English Literature, Music, History of Art, etc.) Part Three: What Made “Cultural Studies” Develop? (1) Modern Cultural Studies was developed by a group of young British scholars in the 1950s: Richard Hoggart (1918-2014), Raymond Williams (1921-88), E. P. Thompson (1924-93), and Stuart Hall (1932-2014). They are often called the “Founding Fathers” of Cultural Studies. Three of them came from working-class families (Hoggart, Williams, Thompson). All of them went to university (on scholarships). Three of them studied English Literature (Hoggart, Williams, Hall). All of them had strong socialist views. All of them taught at adult education institutes (though they later moved to universities). (2) Hoggart, Williams, Thompson and Hall were all impressed and influenced by the methods used by English Literature scholars. These methods included careful readings of the words of a text and careful use of history to place a text in context. What they disliked was the ELITISM of English Literature. They felt that the books studied in English Literature courses were all part of a “high” culture (culture ii) designed for the upper- and middle-classes and therefore expressed the values of those classes. The books seemed to have little to do with the working classes: in other words, with the majority of people in England. (3) Yet Hoggart, Williams, Thompson and Hall believed that the working classes did have a valuable culture of their own—a culture that had never been studied in universities. They began studying this “popular” culture. (4) In 1964, Richard Hoggart, who had become a Professor of English Literature at the University of Birmingham, founded the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (CCCS) there. This gave “Cultural Studies” a name and official status of its own and allowed it to develop independently of English Literature. It was the first institution in the world to award degrees in Cultural Studies. Part Four: Del Boy at the Opera House British Cultural Studies has been strongly interested in the relationship between culture and social class. We’ll think about this by focusing on an extract from the 1986 Christmas Special of Only Fools and Horses, called “A Royal Flush.” In this episode Rodney becomes friendly with Victoria (Vicky), the daughter of a Duke. She persuades him to take her to see Carmen at the Royal Opera House. Rodney has never been to an opera, or a theatre before, and he feels very awkward when he gets there. But then his situation suddenly gets much more uncomfortable when Del unexpectedly turns up … Look out for these moments: When Del first arrives he pushes a lady at the bar to make room, then says “Alright darling? They reckon it’s gonna be a good’un tonight.” Rodney mistakes Del’s date for a kissogram. The following conversation between Vicky and June: Vicky: So you’re an opera buff as well, are you June? June: I saw one once on BBC 2. Our telly had gone up the wall, it was the only channel we could get. Del and Rodney mistake the bell announcing the beginning of the performance for the bell announcing the closure of the bar. The following conversation between Del and June: Del: It’s a blindin’ opera, in’t it? June: It’s alright I suppose. It don’t get going, does it? Del: Well no, it’s not meant to get going – it’s culture. You don’t come to an opera to enjoy it, you come … ’cos it’s there. June: Oh, I didn’t know that. I like Vince Hill. Del: Well yeah, I like Vince Hill. Yeah. Yeah. He’s almost culture, but not quite. But almost. The following conversation between Del and Rodney: Del: Rodney, put your arm round her shoulder. Put your arm round her! Rodney: I don’t … but Del, this is not the Odeon. Part Five: Cultural Studies After The CCCS In the 1970s and 80s the new style of Cultural Studies began spreading to other countries, especially India, the United States, Canada, Australia, and France. In these new locations some of the emphases changed. While British Cultural Studies had been very concerned with class, in other countries more emphasis was placed on things like race, gender, sexuality, and issues connected with colonization. While in Britain Cultural Studies had been very political (left-wing) and essentially anti-institutional, in some other countries—especially the United States—it lost these elements, and immediately became a “safe” academic subject. Since the 1980s the different versions of Cultural Studies have spread and spread—along with Western culture. One of the most interesting arguments made against Cultural Studies, in fact, is that it is itself a new kind of colonization. “It is one thing to study popular culture. It is quite another to romanticize junk and give it academic respectability. The legitimacy that Cultural Studies provides for infantile Western culture has a detrimental effect on Third World societies. Respectable social scientists in places as distant as Delhi and Taiwan spend their time studying, teaching and defending Western junk at the expense of their own rich cultural heritage.” (Ziauddin Sardar and Borin Van Loon, Cultural Studies for Beginners, 1997) YOU ARE YOUR CHOICES: A FINAL THOUGHT LIFE is not just something that you live. It is something that you build, or assemble. As with any building, it is important to choose the right building materials! The most important thing that you can do when you are young is to create a solid and stable “foundation” on which you can continue to build later in life. This means finding things that will give you pleasure and strength in 20 years time—or 40 years time. 5
Can you write me a 1500-1700 word paper (excluding word limits) for me? Please find the below attachment for the instruction and will provide you readings after I hire you.
WEEK 10 THE ENGLISH MUSICAL INTRODUCTION—READ THIS CAREFULLY BEFORE THE CLASS This lecture is about one of the most popular and successful branches of English culture: the MUSICAL. The use of the noun “musical” to refer to a particular kind of theatrical work with songs and dances is quite new (early 1900s). Nevertheless, this kind of theatre first emerged in the late 1600s, when it developed both in alliance with, and in competition with, Italian OPERA. An OPERA is essentially rather like a play, but it is sung (in whole or part). The music is used to develop the story. The music may, for example, emphasize the happiness, the sadness, the violence, or the romance of the story. As individual characters sing, the music helps express the emotions that they are experiencing. A MUSICAL, by contrast, is rather like a play to which bits of music have been added. Before 1970, most of the most important “action” in a musical was spoken. The songs and choruses sometimes work in the same way as the songs and choruses in an opera; but they are often designed simply to interrupt the story in an enjoyable way. The music is less dramatic and more decorative. Make sure you understand the following words: satire, highwayman, vice, cockney. Part One: How it all began In the late 1500s OPERA was created in Italy, to imitate what Ancient Greek theatre was supposed to have been like. Early opera was based on the idea of recitative, a kind of singing halfway between speech and song. This was broken up with choruses. At this period, English theatre already made some use of music, and many plays included songs and dances. In 1656 The Siege of Rhodes, the first English opera, was performed in London. It was all-sung, like contemporary Italian opera. However English audiences, who were used to mainly spoken theatre, disliked this style of performance. In the 1660s and 70s English writers and composers developed a sort of compromise theatrical work, where all the most important parts would be spoken (by actors), but in which there were also many songs, choruses, and dances (usually sung and danced by specialized performers). This style became very popular. Part Two: Competing with the Italians In the early 1700s Italian operas, sung by Italians, started to be performed in London. These were mostly written by George Frideric Handel (1685-1759). Italian operas generally told stories from ancient Greek and Roman literature, ancient history, or the romance literature of the middle ages. They were performed by highly trained singers and musicians. Italian opera soon became enormously popular with the upper classes in Britain, and became an important part of cultural life in London for the next 200 years. In response to the popularity of Italian opera, English writers and composers continued to develop a kind of music theatre which combined speech and song, and in which actors would now sing. The first great success in this tradition was The Beggar’s Opera (1728) by John Gay (1685-1732), which has sometimes been called “the first musical.” It is a satirical story of an unscrupulous highwayman, Macheath, who spends most of his life seducing women, but who is eventually betrayed by his “friends” and sentenced to death. It contained no new music, but Gay wrote new words for many popular English tunes that were designed to be easy to sing by actors without professional musical training. One of these tunes is “Greensleeves.” George Frideric Handel Giulio Cesare (1724) I shall lament my fate, so cruel and so harsh, while I have life in my breast. John Gay The Beggar’s Opera (1728) Since Laws were made for every degree, To curb vice in others, as well as me, I wonder we han’t better company, Upon Tyburn Tree! But Gold from Law can take out the sting; And if rich men like us were to swing, ’Twould thin the land, such numbers to string Upon Tyburn Tree! From the 1720s “musicals” generally told stories set in the modern world that were designed to appeal to the growing middle-class audience. Part Three: The Relationship with Popular Music Since the time of The Beggar’s Opera, one of the key questions facing the British (and later the American) musical is: what sort of relationship should the music in a musical have with the popular music of the period in which the musical is created? In the past, many of the most popular songs came from musicals. For example, “Home Sweet Home” from Henry Bishop’s Clari; or, The Maid of Milan (1823) was probably the most popular song of the entire 1800s. More recently, “Don’t Cry For Me Argentina” from Andrew Lloyd Webber’s Evita (1976) was another huge international hit. But should a musical simply reproduce the sounds of popular music, or should it aim to offer a higher-level listening experience? Should it be closer to the world of classical music and opera? We’ll look at two very different answers to these questions. The most successful British musical in the middle 1900s was Me and My Girl (1937) by Noel Gay (1898-1954). By 29 November 1945 it had reached its 5,000th performance, a world record that would last till the 1990s, when it was finally beaten by Cats. In 1957 it was described as “probably the most successful comedy in the history of the British theatre.” Gay developed a popular style of music from the “music hall” entertainments that were mainly popular with the British working class. Me and My Girl tells the story of how a cockney market trader called Bill Snibson is discovered to be the only son of Lord Hareford, an aristocrat. His “new” relations want him to start acting like a “gentleman,” and to break up with his cockney girlfriend, Sally Smith … The show became most popular for its working-class dance routine, “The Lambeth Walk.” Lambeth—you’ve never seen The skies ain’t blue The grass ain’t greenIt hasn’t got the Mayfair touchBut that don’t matter very much.We play a different way,Not like you But a bit more gayWhen we have a bit of fun—Oh, Boy!Any time you’re Lambeth way,Any evening—any day,You’ll find us all doin’ the Lambeth Walk.Ev’ry little Lambeth galWith her little Lambeth pal,You’ll find us all doin’ the Lambeth Walk.Everything free and easy,Do as you darn well pleasey,Why don’t you make your way there,Go there, stay there,Once you get down Lambeth way,Every evening, every day,You’ll find yourself doin’ the Lambeth Walk. The most successful British musical in the middle 1900s was The Phantom of the Opera (1986) by Andrew Lloyd Webber (1948-). It is the longest-running musical ever in New York and currently the second longest-running in London. Between 2006 and 2014 it was classed as “the most financially successful entertainment event” ever. The story of The Phantom of the Opera is set in the Paris Opera House in the 1880s, and most of the characters are directly connected to the world of opera. Not surprisingly, then, Lloyd Webber chose to compose this musical in a deliberately “operatic” style, suggestive of a sort of “high culture” experience. 2
Can you write me a 1500-1700 word paper (excluding word limits) for me? Please find the below attachment for the instruction and will provide you readings after I hire you.
ENGLISH NURSERY RHYMES INTRODUCTION—READ THIS CAREFULLY BEFORE THE CLASS Nursery rhymes (sometimes called “Mother Goose rhymes” in America) represent the truest form of popular culture, as almost everybody learns them: the most famous 20 or 30 English nursery rhymes are probably known to 98% of the inhabitants of Britain. The term “nursery rhyme” was first used in the early 1800s to define a particular kind of traditional song for young children. In earlier times, however, these songs were not thought of as especially for children, and the way they have been understood has in fact changed several times. This class will be a cultural history of nursery rhymes, and we will be looking at the way the status and significance of these rhymes has changed over a long period of time. It will also introduce you to several famous English nursery rhymes. Make sure you know the following words: nursery, absurd(ity), folklore, cryptic, tradition(al). Before 1744: Oral Culture Most famous English nursery rhymes are between about 200 and 500 years old, composed between c. 1500 and 1800. We do not know who the original authors were, and in many cases the rhymes were probably developed over a long period of time, with several people contributing ideas. In this early period the rhymes were not published as rhymes, but they are sometimes referred to in plays, satires, and other kinds of writing. These references make it clear that nursery rhymes had a very low cultural status. They were associated with the “nonsense” and “ignorance” of lower-class culture. They were not regarded as especially suitable for children: on the contrary, they were often connected with drinking songs and salacious humour. Children were understood as exposed to them by nurses and servants. In Thomas D’Urfey’s comic play, The Campaigners (1698), for example, a nurse is portrayed speaking to a child: “Ah Doddy blesse dat pitty face of myn sylds, and his pitty, pitty hands and his pitty, pitty foots, and all his pitty things, and pat a cake, pat a cake, baker’s man, so I will master as I can, and prick it, and prick it, and prick it, and prick it, and prick it, and throw’t into the oven.” This is the earliest known reference to one of the most famous English nursery rhymes: Pat-a-cake, pat-a-cake, baker’s man. Bake me a cake as fast as you can; Pat it and prick it and mark it with B, And put it in the oven for baby and me. In general, the middle class, especially the religious middle class, saw the rhymes as silly at best and bad at worst. Educationalists condemned their influence on children. In his Improvement of the Mind (1741), for example, Isaac Watts (1674-1748), one of the leading writers of books for children at the time, wrote: the dull rhymes that are sung to lull children asleep, or to sooth a forward humour, should be generally forbidden to entertain those children, where a good education is designed. Something more innocent, more solid and profitable, may be invented instead of these fooleries. … Let not nurses or servants be suffered to fill their [children’s] minds with silly tales, and with senseless rhymes, many of which are so absurd and ridiculous … 1744-1800: The Transition to Books of Rhymes In 1744 Tommy Thumb’s Song Book and a sequel, Tommy Thumb’s Pretty Song Book, were published by Mary Cooper, a London publisher: the first books of nursery rhymes. These are complex publications: they claim to be books for children (“fit for the Capacities of Infants”), but at the same time they include a good deal of bad language and illustrations of children behaving badly. Some modern scholars think these books were designed more for adults than for children, and that to some extent they make fun of children. The next collection of nursery rhymes was Mother Goose’s Melody, probably put together in the 1760s, but not published until 1781. Interestingly, in this collection the nursery rhymes are all given “moral” and “philosophical” notes—but these are generally ironic. This suggests that middle-class readers still had an awkward relationship to the traditional rhymes now “dignified” by being published in a book. Two more collections of nursery rhymes that appeared in the 1700s were clearly intended mainly for adult readers: Joseph Ritson’s Gammer Gurton’s Garland, or the Nursery Parnassus of 1783 and Noel Turner’s Infant Institutes (1797). They show that people were becoming increasingly interested in nursery rhymes as expressions of traditional folklore. 1800-1850: Popularity and Controversy In the period 1800-1850 the cultural status of nursery rhymes was transformed, even though they remained controversial. Many books of nursery rhymes were now published specifically for children. Though some educationalists still criticized them as “nonsense” that would have a bad effect on children, other educationalists defended them as highly imaginative, and above all as a “traditional” part of children’s education. The most important collector and writer on nursery rhymes at this time, James Orchard Halliwell (1820-89), wrote in 1842: The absurdity and frivolity of a rhyme may naturally be its chief attractions to the very young; and there will be something lost from the imagination of that child, whose parents insist so much on matters of fact, that the “cow” must be made, in compliance with the rules of their educational code, to jump “under” instead of “over the moon”; while of course the little dog must be considered as “barking,” not “laughing” at the circumstance. The rhyme he was referring to is: Hey diddle diddle,The cat and the fiddle,The cow jumped over the moon,The little dog laughed to see such sport,And the dish ran away with the spoon. 1850-1950: The Search for Deeper Meanings By this time, there was almost no opposition to nursery rhymes, which had become a standard part of a child’s education all over the English-speaking world. But now that they had a “classic” cultural status, people began to dispute that they were just fun and nonsensical. The idea developed that they were actually full of cryptic references to real historical events and persons. This approach culminated in The Real Personages of Mother Goose (1930), by the American scholar Katherine Elwes Thomas. The problem with this theory was that in most cases it was impossible to prove a connection, and by the end of this period it was being widely rejected. The actual relationship of the nursery rhymes to historical events—if it exists at all—is certainly a complex one. A good example is one of the best-known nursery rhymes, “The Grand Old Duke of York”: Oh, The grand old Duke of York,He had ten thousand men;He marched them up to the top of the hill,And he marched them down again. And when they were up, they were up,And when they were down, they were down,And when they were only half-way up,They were neither up nor down. Since the middle 1800s it has been repeatedly stated that this rhyme refers to Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany (1763-1827), the second son of King George III, who was appointed commander of the British army in 1793. In the 1940s, Alfred Burne made a detailed study of Prince Frederick, however, and concluded (i) that the rhyme (in this form) did not exist in Prince Frederick’s lifetime and (ii) that there was “no event in his [the Prince’s] military career that remotely resembles the operation described in the jingle.” Moreover, he found a much earlier rhyme, dating back to at least 1594: The King of France went up the hill With twenty thousand men; The King of France came down the hill And never went up again. Burne argued that the more modern rhyme had evolved from the earlier one, and that at some point after 1827 “The grand old Duke of York” was substituted for “The King of France.” Since Burne wrote, another 1800s version has been discovered in which it is Napoleon who marches up the hill. Nursery Rhymes Today Nowadays nursery rhymes are still an important part of every child’s education, and in general they are regarded simply as good fun, likely to stimulate a child’s imagination, and useful for developing a child’s interest in language. Modern media have presented them to children in more and more different ways. The best-known nursery rhymes are the truest form of popular culture, because almost everybody knows them. References to them in other contexts can easily be recognized, and they have been featured in novels, films, operas, pop songs, television shows, political satires, advertising, and many other areas of cultural life. 5
Can you write me a 1500-1700 word paper (excluding word limits) for me? Please find the below attachment for the instruction and will provide you readings after I hire you.
WEEK 9 THE ENGLISH UNIVERSITY INTRODUCTION—READ THIS CAREFULLY BEFORE THE CLASS This lecture will give you some ideas about higher education in England, and how it is very different from that in Japan. We will start by considering the great difference between the way the Japanese rank universities, and the way the rest of the world ranks them. We will then go on to look at some key differences between universities in Britain and Japan (and especially Doshisha): the nature of the professors, the nature of the learning experience, and the way students are evaluated. In the second part of the lecture, we will be mainly concerned with the history of higher education in Britain, and concentrate in particular on two historically very important universities (both of which I attended as a student): Oxford and University College London. Part One: Standards 1) What is a university for? TO CREATE KNOWLEDGE. 2) How to Become a Professor To become a permanent, full-time professor at Doshisha you need to have published 5 essays. These can be (and often have been) published in Doshisha’s own academic bulletins. To become a permanent, full-time professor in most British universities you need to have published a book, or obtained a contract for a book, with an academic publisher – or to have equivalent publication. To become a permanent, full-time professor in good American universities you need to have published 2 books with an academic publisher – or to have equivalent publication. The standards are much higher! Part Two: Producing Knowledge 1) The Nature of Learning “In patterns of study the UK, historically, used to have no continuous assessment but final exams at the end of the year, and particularly at the end of the programme. The US always worked on a semester system with exams at the end of each semester and, except the best universities, no exam at the end of the course.” (David VanderLinde, “Reflections on Higher Education in the US and the UK,” 2001) 2) Main differences between US and British degrees “UK degrees are more focused on the practical aspect of the profession as opposed to the US liberal arts education, which requires each student to learn a broader curriculum. For students who have a clear idea of what profession they wish to follow, a specialised British degree is ideal as they are able to concentrate their efforts on the designated subject area from the beginning of the degree. The UK education style is particularly relevant to students who want to concentrate their efforts and energy on a specific subject area or combination of subjects straight out of high school. … Undergraduate students are expected to be proactive, read widely around their subject and to motivate themselves outside of lectures. … The close contact between student and tutor in seminars and tutorials is a particular strength of UK degree courses.” (“Across the Pond” – An American website encouraging American students to study in Britain) The Key Point: To do well in a university like Doshisha, you need to study many different things, and to satisfy the different grading criteria of many different professors. But most of the knowledge does not need to be retained. To do well in a British university, you need to have studied one subject area deeply, and to retain your knowledge until the end of the course, when you are expected to be able to answer general questions: for example, “Does Shakespeare represent marriage positively or negatively?” Part Three: Institutions 1) Oxford The University of Oxford is the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the second or third oldest surviving university in the world (preceded by the University of Bologna and, possibly, the University of Paris). For its entire history it has been judged one of the world’s top universities. The exact beginning of the University of Oxford is mysterious. The earliest reference to higher education at Oxford is in 1096. In the 1100s it developed as a leading centre of learning in Europe, the main rival of Paris. In the 1200s Oxford developed into something like its modern form, with a series of colleges all separately administered but joined together at the university level. In 1209 a group of scholars from Oxford went to Cambridge and created the University of Cambridge. Cambridge developed as Oxford’s great rival – for over 600 years they were the only universities in England. For a long time the monopoly that Oxford and Cambridge held over higher education in England was unchallenged. But problems started in the 1600s, for religious reasons. In 1581 Oxford introduced a religious test for any student graduating at the university – they had to publicly accept the 39 Articles of Faith established by the Church of England. Cambridge followed in 1616, making this a requirement for entering students. Many Protestant Dissenters refused to accept this condition, and in the late 1600s they began setting up Dissenting Academies to offer an alternative education – but these academies could not grant degrees. In the 1700s both Oxford and Cambridge seemed to be increasingly old-fashioned. Gradually this led to the idea that there should be other universities. When new universities began to be created in the 1800s this forced Oxford and Cambridge to greatly improve their standards. 2) University College London University College London (UCL) opened in 1826 as the first part of the University of London. At first it was simply called London University. UCL was the third university in Britain, and it was designed to be very different from Oxford and Cambridge. There was no religious test: anyone could be a student if they met the intellectual requirements. And the curriculum was meant to be far more modern, and responsive to intellectual and scientific progress made outside Oxford and Cambridge. UCL was the first university to offer a degree in Economics. It also put a strong emphasis on practical science (Chemistry, Engineering, etc.), Medicine and Modern Languages. Classes on the English language were taught from 1828, and in 1859 UCL became the first university in the world to offer a degree in English Literature. It took Oxford and Cambridge a long time to respond to these developments. UCL was a leader in many other respects, too. In 1878 it became the first university to allow female students to be admitted on the same terms as men (Oxford and Cambridge took about 100 years to catch up!). In 1893 it became the first university in Britain to have a Students’ Union set up to organize social events and clubs and societies for students, as well as fighting for students’ rights. During the 1800s UCL was, in many ways, Britain’s leading university. Today it is ranked one of the top five universities in Britain and one of the top twenty in the world. 3) Japan The University of Tokyo was opened in 1877 as Japan’s first university. Its major purpose was to create knowledge relevant to the modernization of Japan: in this sense, it was closer in concept to UCL than to Oxford or Cambridge. The big difference from all the British universities was the idea that it should be directly controlled by the Government. In 1886 it was renamed the Imperial University to emphasize its connection to the Government. Not surprisingly, people like Jo Niijima were horrified at the idea that higher education in Japan would be directly controlled by the Government! In 1890 Keio University became the first private university in Japan. 5
Can you write me a 1500-1700 word paper (excluding word limits) for me? Please find the below attachment for the instruction and will provide you readings after I hire you.
WEEK 12 SPORT IN ENGLAND (2): SPORT FOR ALL INTRODUCTION—READ THIS CAREFULLY BEFORE THE CLASS This is the second of the lectures on English sport. This week we’ll focus on football, or soccer, which became the national sport of Britain in the late 1800s, and has since become the most popular sport in the world: the football “World Cup” is even bigger than the Olympics! In the late 1800s organized football changed, very quickly, from being a game played by public schoolboys and university students to being the favourite entertainment and recreational activity of working class men. In the same period, football spread around the world amazingly fast, but it made little impact in Japan, where baseball was preferred. We’ll contrast the open and “democratic” organization of football in Britain with the closed and protected organization of professional baseball in Japan. We’ll also look at the way lawn (outdoor) tennis developed very quickly in the late 1800s, as a favorite activity for middle and upper class people. 1) Dangerous Football “[football is] to be utterly abjected of all noble men … wherein is nothing but beastly fury and extreme violence; whereof proceedeth hurt, and consequently rancour and malice do remain with them that be wounded; wherefore it is to be put in perpetual silence.” (from Thomas Elyot, The Governour, 1531) During the 1300s and 1400s both governments and local authorities in England and Scotland made many attempts to ban football! 2) The Boys Will Play a) “The evolution of public school recreations in the nineteenth century resembled in some ways the evolution of recreation outside the schools. There was a steady tendency to make games less spontaneous and less physically hazardous. In the schools officials standardised competitive conditions and made some traditional country games more subject to laws and hierarchical control. Thus (though this was not the object in the beginning) the application of rationalization and standardization made the sports less local and more transferable.” (from Richard D. Mandell, Sport: A Cultural History, 1984) b) The Development of Modern Football DATE EVENT 1823 William Web Ellis (1807-1872) introduces running with the ball at RUGBY school. c. 1840 Organised football starts to be played at CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY. 1841 First reference to 11-a-side football at ETON (possibly already played at HARROW) – the game now encouraged by the teachers at ETON. 1845 Office of referee created at ETON. 1845 RUGBY publishes standardised rules for a running-with-the-ball game. 1847 ETON rules published: the ball could be stopped with the hand, but not caught, carried, thrown or struck; strict rules against off-side (on the 3 player principle). c. 1847 HARROW rules published: the ball could be caught; rules for “kicking off” to start a game, goal kicks and throw-ins; size of goals specified. 1848 “Cambridge Rules” published: they are agreed to and signed by representatives of ETON, RUGBY, HARROW, SHREWSBURY and CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY. They incorporate ETON rules about off-side. 1856 Revised “Cambridge Rules” published. 1857 SHEFFIELD FOOTBALL CLUB created; it publishes its own rules, introducing the idea of “corners.” 1863 A FOOTBALL ASSOCIATION founded in LONDON; it attempts to create a compromise between RUGBY rules and CAMBRIDGE rules, but fails; FOOTBALL, or SOCCER, and RUGBY now develop as separate sports. 1869 The FOOTBALL ASSOCIATION revises its rules to forbid any handling of the ball. 1871 The FOOTBALL ASSOCIATION organizes the world’s first football competition, the Football Association (F.A.) Cup. 1877 Revised FOOTBALL ASSOCIATION rules accepted by all English teams: these rules specify the length of the game (90 minutes), size of the pitch, and the size of the ball. 1885 The Football Association legalises professionalism. 1891 Penalty kicks introduced. 3) The Game Has Changed: Some of the 1856 Cambridge Rules 3. After a goal, the losing side shall kick off; the sides changing goals unless a previous arrangement be made to the contrary 6. When the ball is behind [i.e. off the end of the pitch], it shall be brought forward at the place where it left the ground not more than ten paces, and kicked off. 8. When a player catches the ball directly from the foot, he may kick it as he can without running with it. In no other case may the ball be touched with the hands, except to stop it. 4) Football Becomes International! In the late 1800s football quickly became an international sport. First of all, it spread to the other countries in the British Islands: the Scottish F.A. was created in 1873, the Welsh F.A. in 1875 and the Irish F.A. in 1880. Outside Britain the first countries to create football associations were Holland and Denmark (both 1889). Then came New Zealand (1891), Argentina (1893), Chile, Switzerland and Belgium (all 1895), Italy (1898), Germany and Uruguay (both 1900). By the end of 1900 fourteen countries were playing organised, competitive football. The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the first international football association, was created in Paris in 1904. At first this was just a European organisation, but South American clubs began joining in 1912. By 1950 over 80 countries were members of FIFA; by 2000 over 200. In the 1920s FIFA officials began to talk about the possibility of an international football competition. The first WORLD CUP took place in Uruguay in 1930, with thirteen countries taking part. It has since become the world’s biggest sporting event. 5) Organising Sport: English Football and Japanese Baseball England Population: approx. 56 million. Number of Top Division Teams: 20. The English football league was created in 1888. It included 12 teams. It quickly grew to 22 teams (in recent years it has been reduced to 20). In 1892 a second (lower) division was created. In 1920 two more divisions were added. Every year teams moved up and down between these divisions. Since 1888 over 50 teams have played in the top division. Japan Population: approx. 126 million. Number of Top Division teams: 12. The Japanese baseball league was created in 1936. It included 7 teams. By 1950 it had expanded to 16 teams, and divided into 2 (equal) divisions. In 1958 the number of teams in these divisions was permanently fixed at 6 each. These differences reflect a very different history. In England professional football clubs developed “naturally” out of amateur clubs. In Japan professional baseball clubs were “artificially” created by companies that had nothing directly to do with sport. In 1936 there were: Tokyo Giants (owned by a newspaper); Osaka Tigers (owned by a railway company); Hankyu (owned by a railway company); Dai Tokyo (owned by a newspaper); Nagoya Kinko (owned by a newspaper); Nagoya (owned by a newspaper); Tokyo Senators (owned by a politician, later bought by a railway company). Initially some names emphasized the PLACE where the team was based (like English football teams), but most soon changed their names to emphasize the COMPANY that owned them. 6) Football and the English Working Classes “Perhaps the most novel feature of the Victorian and Edwardian sporting ‘revolution’ was the reduction and concentration in the periods of time during which organised forms of sport were watched and played … of all the forces which go towards explaining why the emergence of an extensive, modern sporting culture was delayed until the second half of the nineteenth century and why it appeared first in Britain the most important were the changes that occurred in industrial technology, methods of transport, hours of work and levels of real wages.” (from Neil Tranter, Sport, economy and society in Britain 1750-1914, 1998) 7) Tennis and the English Middle Classes DATE EVENT 1874 Major Walter Clopton Wingfield invents a portable outdoor tennis court; he calls his game “Lawn Tennis” 1875 The Marylebone Cricket Club attempts to standardise the rules of outdoor tennis; they retain Wingfield’s court, but lengthen it 1877 The All England Croquet Club changes its name to the All England Croquet and Lawn Tennis Club; it develops modern tennis rules, and adopts a rectangular court; the first “Wimbledon” championship is held 1880 The net is lowered from 4 feet in the middle (Wingfield’s height) to 3 feet 1884 First women’s championship at Wimbledon 6
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WEEK 11 SPORT IN ENGLAND (1): THE IMPORTANCE OF RULES INTRODUCTION—READ THIS CAREFULLY BEFORE THE CLASS This is the first of two lectures about sport in England—perhaps the area of cultural life in which England has had the greatest international influence. The number of sports “invented” in England is quite incredible. This does not mean that the English were the first, or the only, people to play these sports; it means they were the first to WRITE DOWN THE RULES and to ORGANIZE COMPETITIONS. In other words, England was the first country to establish a modern sporting culture of sports clubs and associations, rules and records, regular competitions, and sports journalism. In this lecture we’ll think about how and why this sort of sporting culture developed in England, and pay particular attention to boxing, which was one of the first sports to modernize, and was for a long time considered the national English sport. Because sumo is considered the national sport of Japan, we’ll also think about some similarities and differences between boxing in England and sumo in Japan. The biggest difference, I will suggest, is the idea of an INDIVIDUAL CHAMPION. 1. The English Invented Sport! a) “… the English invention is the Game. The legacy can be seen any week in schools and stadia anywhere from Spitsbergen to Tierra del Fuego. The word ‘soccer,’ the world sport, is public-school slang for Association Football. Baseball is a form of the English children’s game rounders. American football a version of rugby, which developed after William Webb Ellis picked up the ball and ran with it during a game of soccer at Rugby School. Tennis was redeveloped by the Marylebone Cricket Club and the first of the world famous Wimbledon tournaments was held in 1877. Englishmen set the standard distances for running, swimming and rowing competitions and developed the first modern horse-races. Contemporary hockey dates from the codification of rules by the Hockey Association in 1866, competitive swimming from the formation of the English Amateur Swimming Association in 1869, modern mountaineering can be dated from the 1854 attempt on the Wetterhorn by Sir Alfred Wills. The English invented goalposts, racing boats and stopwatches and were the first to breed modern racehorses. Even when they imported sports from abroad, like polo or skiing, the English laid down the rules…. The list goes on.” (from Jeremy Paxman, The English, 1998) b) “We know that almost all the field events of a track meet were invented by English university students. They invented the running broad jump, the triple jump, the hurdles, and steeplechase races. They also established the standard track distances. Englishmen set the distances for swimmers, for rowing competitions, and for horse races of all kinds. By selective breeding Englishmen established the modern race horse and most recognised varieties of sporting dogs. They built the first sporting yachts, racing sculls, and row boats for trained crews. They also devised the first football goal posts, boxing gloves, stopwatches, and most other sporting equipment for which they set the earliest standard dimensions, weights, materials, and so on. Englishmen ‘invented’ (that is, they first wrote down the fixed rules for games which had been variously played earlier) almost all the team games now played from football (both Rugby and soccer) to polo. … There are other English innovations that are less concrete and more difficult to identify than hurdle races, wickets, and single sculls. Perhaps more indicative of changes in ideas or culture were such things as handicaps to increase the excitement at a finish line, odds (as in betting), the concept of sporting ‘fairness,’ and the notion of a sports record.” (from Richard D. Mandell, Sport: A Cultural History, 1984) Sports DIRECTLY developed in Britain include: Football (soccer), Rugby, Hockey, Cricket, Golf, Lawn Tennis, Squash, Boxing, Athletics, Swimming Sports INDIRECTLY developed in Britain include: American Football, Baseball Sports not developed in Britain include: Basketball, Judo 2. How? When? Why?: Beyond Martial Arts a) In most pre-modern societies the idea of “sport” is very much associated with “martial arts,” the development of fighting skills in men. Men needed to train their bodies so as to be able to fight effectively in war. (Women usually played no kind of “sport” at all.) On the other hand, such societies usually have a number of popular games that are often primitive versions of modern sports. In Britain, and in many European countries, such games were associated with noise, drunkenness, violence and various bad behaviors: the authorities therefore often tried to suppress them. b) Modern sport developed when the need for martial arts diminished, and the authorities tried to DISCIPLINE rather than suppress popular games. Two other factors were essential: Rules and standardized playing conditions were developed to make sports TRANSFERABLE. Media developed to spread news of sporting events, and to encourage interest in COMPETITION. c) Table of Sport “Firsts” First Practised Published Rules First Club National Champion(ship) International Competition Boxing ?? 1743 1719 1719 1754* Cricket c. 1100 1744 1788 1709 1844** Football (and Rugby) ?? 1848 1857 1872 1870 Tennis c. 1100 1555*** (Real Tennis); 1877 (Lawn Tennis) 1877 1877 1900**** * Britain vs. France; ** Canada vs. United States; *** In Italy; **** In United States d) “Three recognisably modern sports were firmly established in Britain before the eighteenth century was out: horse-racing, cricket and pugilism. … Modern sport must first of all have rules and the means of arbitration to determine whether the rules have been broken. It must have a more-or-less regular programme of events and be able to match the best competitors against one another. It has specialised venues for play and is essentially commercial, paying the performers, charging people to watch and giving the chance of profits to promoters and backers. It seeks publicity before its events and creates a thirst for accounts of play immediately afterwards. In short, a modern sport develops both an economic and literary life of its own, and its transactions are important to significant sections of the community.” (from Dennis Brailsford, Bareknuckles: A Social History of Prize-Fighting, 1988) 3. The Importance of Boxing Boxing was the first “modern” sport in the sense that it had written rules, a national championship, and generated lots of media interest. From the early 1700s to the late 1800s many people considered boxing to be THE British sport. It was supported by all the social classes, especially the upper classes and lower classes. A national championship was established in 1719, on the modern principle that when a champion is declared, anyone who beats the champion becomes the next champion. At this time boxing was only just beginning to separate itself from a sort of mixed wrestling / boxing sport. The man who developed the modern style of boxing was Jack Broughton (1704-89), the second national champion and the first celebrity sportsman in the modern sense. He wanted to make boxing MORE SAFE, but also MORE ATTRACTIVE TO SPECTATORS. Boxing was the first truly open and democratic professional sport. Anyone could attend a boxing match; anyone could compete. The first professional black sportsmen were boxers. 4. The Difference of Sumo Sumo lovers like to claim that it is at least 2,000 years old. There is no evidence for this, and the beginnings of sumo are just as mysterious as the beginnings of boxing. What is clear, is that sumo as it is played today was only developed in the late 1700s: “Sechie sumo [performed at court festivals in old Japan] was quite different from modern sumo. The most obvious difference is that it was not performed within a ring, thereby precluding the means of victory most common today—delivering your opponent out of the ring. Wrestlers won by throwing their opponents to the ground, much as in judo today. Indeed judo also claims sechie sumo in its own history. What has become two sports began to differentiate only in the middle of the Edo period, when the wrestlers were separated from spectators by a boundary, which eventually developed into the ring.” (from Lee. A. Thompson, “The Invention of the Yokozuna” in Mirror of Modernity, 1998) The biggest DIFFERENCE between British boxing and Japanese sumo is that the Japanese took so long to develop any idea of a champion / championship. The rules and rituals(!) of sumo developed long before there was any organizational structure for creating champions. In the Meiji period some Japanese newspapers began to make awards to wrestlers that they considered “champions.” However, there was no agreement on how to judge who was the champion, because there was no agreement on how to count “no decision” (azukari) matches, draws (hikiwake), and absences (yasumi)—which comprised about one third of all sumo matches. Most newspapers did not even bother to report other newspapers’ choice of “champions.” Not until 1926 did the Sumo Association accept the idea of an individual champion and create a set of rules to decide how the champion should be decided. Another difference, of course, is that sumo does not have a good record of being “open and democratic,” and of encouraging international interest. 6

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