Create a 7 pages page paper that discusses bad planning theory. The origin of the problem is attributed to the surveys that were undertaken by the town planners in preparation for planning, they were rarely done. The failure to take into consideration the social issues into planning was criticized by Young and Willmott (Taylor and Taylor, 1998).
In the criticism of physical determinism, the social issues were not ignored and the major concern was to plan for the community life according to neighborhoods. In planning the neighborhoods, the town planners had the tendency of assuming that the form and the layout of the neighborhood’s physical environment would mold and determine the quality of the social life. Maurice Broady and Ruth Glass were critical of the ideology that social neighborhoods could be developed by physical planning (Taylor and Taylor, 1998).
Anyone can get involved in the planning process and the majority of the individuals get engaged in goal-oriented behavior. Planning is seen as the capability to control the forthcoming consequences of the present actions. An individual will succeed in planning if he or she is capable of controlling more consequences. Doubts usually arise as to the efficacy of national economic planning. they are rarely discussed and answered. Advocates for the planning and plans spend less time demonstrating how it can be successful. Instead, they spend more time explaining how wonderful planning is despite the fact that things have not worked out the right way (Wildavsky, 1971).
Planning is defended in terms of the valuation process and not in terms of the results. How the individual got there matters a lot than how much the individual did there. Therefore, “planners talk about how much they learned while going through the exercise, how others benefited from the discipline of considering goals and resources, and how much more rational everyone feels at the end” (Wildavsky, 1971).
Cohen, the author of Modern Capitalist Planning: The French Experience offers a detailed analysis of the French people in the process of planning. The Monnet plan was created in 1945-6 and Cohen asserts that it overestimated the forthcoming amounts of the investment funds. The planners and the politicians finished the first and the second plan successful and ahead of the schedule (the plans were 4). However, the third plan which was finished in 1958 indicated hard times to come. The plan failed and Cohen states that it was due to the fact that planning was a political process. .