200 word per question.
total 6 questions
Criminology Assignment 1200 words. 200 word per question. total 6 questions
1 Reflective Journal Entry Deakinsync Logon Username: wfatima Pw: gulnar.w8 In today’s advanced technical era, online platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and others have engulfed the lives of many young teens and adults. They use these platforms to communicate with their friends, family members, and peers (Horst et al . 2013) . These platforms hav e assisted in establishing cyber -identity and cyber -community. Cyber -identity is the notion of seeing ones elf online, whereas cyber -community is the online interaction between one or two groups. Generally speaking, the internet has provided us with immense opportunities. But, with these opportunities , several risks are also associated (Livingstone & Haddon 2009) . In the introductory topic, I get the idea that to explore the internet’s avenues on children; it is necessary to conduct a thorough investigation about children’s agency, literacy levels, and motivations. 2 The provided readings in the first module are the extension of this idea, which helped i n consolidating my opinion about cyber -identity and cyber -community regarding young children. The theoretical underpinning of self -identity has its roots i n social construction. Social sci entists have always studied identity’s concept in terms of society. According to this theory, individuals make and maintain their identities through social interactions (Davis 2012) . What an individual gets a response from his/her audience, it shapes the identity. It is pertinent to mention here that social institutions such as family and school i nfuse specific identities in children from a very young age. The roles of these instituti ons are important for recognising and emb racing one’s identity. Similarly, in today’s networked era, individuals also create their cyber -identity by communication with others through online platforms (Davis 2012) . T he creation of such identity also exhibit s at the community level. Identity has b ecome fluid and multifaceted as one moves from one social context to another one. In this backdrop, me dia ecology proves a crucial area of study in which types of media and communication patterns affect humans’ perceptions, emotions, values, and feelings. People make their cyber -identity by posting messages and their images online. It entails a way of expressing oneself online. Different scholars have competing views on the opportunities online platform provide s in terms of harnessing cyber -identity (Davis 2012) . Some argue that people express themselves online the same as they are offline. In contrast, some say that people’s online expressions differ from their offline lives (Davis 2012) . The reasons behind thi s distinctive nature of online identity expression lie within the structural features and purposes of some online spaces and the people who use them (Davis 3 2012) . For instance, Facebook users will interact with friends who they might already know offline or unknown people. Thus, to these two categories of people, online users will shoe different identities. Moreover, some researchers have elucidated the concept of ‘self -divide’, that is people divide their offline self into self -aspects, and only present t hese aspect s online (Bullingham & Vasconcelos 2013) . From my point of view, though some fundamental differences between online and offline cyber -identities do indeed exist, in majority , people develop only that online identity which they are in their actual life. I am also a social media activist as I regularly use Facebook and In stagram to share my daily status and photos on them. It is my way of expressing myself to let my friends know about my daily routines and communicate with them online. I have established online identity just like my offline identity. Young people tend to e mbrace socialis ation by hanging out with their friends. Socialis ation can be done online (by communication through messages and updating status) and offline (by meeting with individuals face -to-face) (Horst et al. 2013) . When young people want to get toget her , they do so firstly by going online. For instance, I usually make plans with my friends on online platforms. I text my friends to make e meetup plan, and we decide occasion and place for it. After online communication, we meet each other and have inter -personal communication. Therefore, online platforms are proving beneficial in terms of creating and maintaining cyber -community. Besides, acting as the source of socialis ation media technology also acts as an entertainment tool. Media technology in the fo rm of print, digital, and so cial media is bringing tremendous changes in people’s lives. The media ecology helps us in understanding the media technology’s role in bringing the entertainment element into play. Books, television, and social media also 4 help young people in hanging out in terms of entertainment (Horst et al. 2013) . Speaking of myself, I sometimes make plans with my friends to visit my home. At home, we have a group study session which also results in interpersonal communication. Moreover, we also watch movies, YouTube and Netflix together on a television screen. Thus, cyberspace is creating opport unities for young people to amuse themselves and enjoy a fun time with their friends (Davis 2012) . The use of social media platforms is imparting enormous impacts on teen’s lives. The question of whether these impacts are positive or negative remains diff icult to precisely answer. There is no clear consensus a mongst teens about their consequences . According to the Pew Research Center report of 2018, it was found that 45percent teens believed that social media has neither positive nor negative effects on th em. Whereas, 31percent said that social media usage influenced their lives positively , and 24percent said it has negative impacts (Anderson & Jiang 2018) . Moreover, 45percent teenagers remain online constantly. There is no denying that social media surge h as influenced people’s life to a great extent, but the point to ponder is that whether it brings any gains for teens. In my opinion, excessive use of social media platforms by teenagers of young age is inflicting them with more negative effects as compared to the positive ones. Teens face mental and social issues such as the lack of cognitive development, eyesight issues, mental stress, social isolation, excessive addiction, among others. In the US, children of young age face these issues frequently. In co nclusion, there is no denial that advancements in technology and social media platforms have surged peoples’ connectivity in terms of sharing pictures, messages, and other memories. Teens are also not behind, as they use social media websites regularly. Th is is happening not only in Australia, but also across the globe. There is a persistent dilemma between 5 self -identity online and offline. Different theoretical bases help us to identity the reasons behind the occurrence of such dilemma. It is also difficul t to understand teenagers’ behavioural patterns in regards to online facilitation and activities. Some use media for entertainment purposes, whereas, some use it for connecting with the outside world. Nevertheless, today’s world has become a global village in which communities are termed as cyber -communities. References Anderson, M & Jiang, J 2018, Teens, Social Media & Technology. Pew Research Center. Bullingham, L & Vasconcelos , C. Ana 2013, the presentation of self in the online world: Goffman and the study of online identities. Journal of Information Science, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 101 -113. Davis, K 2012, Tensions of identity in a networked era: Young people’s perspectives on th e risks and rewards of online self -expression. New Media & Society, vol. 14 , no. 4 , pp. 634 – 651. 6 Horst A. H, Heer -Stephenson , B, Robinson, L 2013. Media Ecologies. In: Hanging Out, Messing Around, and Geeking Out: Kids Living and Learning with New Media. The MIT Press, pp. 29 -69. Livingstone, S & Haddon, L 2009. Kids online : Opportunities and risks for children. Policy Press.