Identify one take-home message or educational implication for each of the readings listed in the Reading Assignment of this unit. Think about the information presented in the learning resources and ho

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Identify one take-home message or educational implication for each of the readings listed in the Reading Assignment of this unit. Think about the information presented in the learning resources and how you can utilize it when working to increase student motivation. There are 6 readings, which means you will create 6 take-home messages. Each take-home message or educational implication must be followed-up with an example to illustrate your thoughts.


1. Blakemore S.J., & Choudhury, S. (2006). Development of the adolescent brain: Implications for executive function and social cognition. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 47.

  • This article goes into detail about executive functioning and social cognition as they pertain to the developing adolescent.

2. Fischer, K. W.  (1980, November).  A theory of cognitive development: The control and construction of hierarchies of skills.  Psychological Review 87(6), 1-55.

  • This article looks at a theory of cognitive development known as skill theory where cognitive development is thought to be a series of skill structures known as levels.

3. Gardner, H., & Hatch, T. (1989, November). Multiple intelligences go to school: Educational implications of the theory of multiple intelligences. Educational Researcher, 18 (8), pp. 4-10.–7B6gCt1x5GRPLTXeACtNWsqTbsa7RbqgXM9oS9mXURs1NjNI8BSdSccaSYmYj3QJJGfMpnA

  • Howard Gardner’s theory on multiple intelligences is important to take note of, as he identifies and discusses the many ways in which educators should promote students’ talents, which might fall outside of the realm of academia. It is important as educators to ensure that all students feel good about their abilities, as it takes cognitive strength to engage in many tasks, in and outside of the classroom environment. For instance, a basketball player must understand his/her body, how s/he moves, and various different strategies for scoring points against opponents and winning games. Everyone is not going to be a successful basketball player just like everyone is not going to be a successful scholar in academia, but some individuals will be successful in these arenas. Therefore, we should encourage students’ varied interests, so they feel confident in their level of intelligence.

4. John-Steiner, V., & Mahn, H. (2012. December). Sociocultural approaches to learning and development: A Vygotskian Framework. Educational Psychologist, 31(3/4), 191-206.

  • This article explores three central concepts of Vygotskian framework to analyze the connection between learning and development: social sources of individual development; semiotic mediation in human development; and genetic analysis.

5. Mirza, H. (2008). Race, gender and educational desire: Why black women succeed and fail. Download the PDF

  • Read the Introduction. IQ or intelligence is still a hot topic when discussing adolescents. However, we must take into consideration how many IQ tests and other academic assessment tests are biased in terms of gender, race, ethnicity, and culture.

6. Sanders, R. A. (2013). Adolescent psychosocial, social, and cognitive development. Pediatrics in Review, 34(8), 354–359.

  • Cognition refers to mental processes such as thinking, memorization, and the like. As children move into adolescence and adolescents move into adulthood, the way in which they interact with data and the way in which they think should change. They should become faster information processors and be more sophisticated in their thinking and problem-solving skills as they mature.

7. Shabani, K., Khatib, M., & Ebadi, S. (2010, December). Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development: Instructional implications and teachers’ professional development. English Language Teaching, 3 (4), 237-248.

  • Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD or Zo-Ped) is important to understand, as all learning occurs within the ZPD. Vygotsky felt that learning was continuous (and did not occur in stages), and that as long as we are learning, we are within the ZPD. The ZPD is the difference between what students can do alone (actual developmental level) and what they can do with assistance (potential developmental level). To reach their potential development, adult scaffolding or guided instruction, as well as peer learning must occur within the ZPD, where tools and symbols are utilized to assist students with learning. For instance, students having difficulty with writing essays might find peer feedback helpful in scaffolding their learning, so as to improve essay production. Students who understand multiplication and division might have difficulty with fractions but will only feel confident with fractions after much-guided practice with a teacher. So, as educators, you have to pay attention to when an adolescent is entering into a ZPD. It is typically when they have difficulty understanding and/or performing a task.

Optional Video

1. Spinks, S. (2002, January 31). Inside the Teenage Brain [Video]. Frontline. (52:52)

  • Thought Question: How does the brain development of teens impact their cognitive development within the academic realm? This video is an investigative report that follows several adolescent students in understanding why they behave as they do. You will hear from experts who explore the recesses of the brain to find new explanations for adolescent behavior. This information is extremely helpful in understanding how we parent, teach and understand teens. Please think of some take-home messages from the video.

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