INDIVIDUAL PROJECT (RESEARCH PROPOSAL) 1. Identify a topic and conduct a literature search (Topic – Are Criminals Born or Bred: Is It as Simple as One or the Other?) 2. Complete an annotated bibliogra

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INDIVIDUAL PROJECT (RESEARCH PROPOSAL)

1. Identify a topic and conduct a literature search (Topic – Are Criminals Born or Bred: Is It as Simple as One or the Other?)

2. Complete an annotated bibliography for six (6) related peer-reviewed journal articles (completed – see attached files)

3. Research Question: Is it just one thing that contributes to an individuals crminal nature.

4. Write an introduction (statement of the problem, research question(s), hypotheses,

significance of the study, description of participants, and brief description of data

collection methods). The introduction should include only one of the two previously

submitted research questions.

5. Complete the research proposal with the following components: title page, abstract,

introduction, literature review, methods, and references page(s).

*It is highly recommended to write on a research topic/question that you can develop into a

thesis for graduate school. Since this is only the proposal for a potential research project, you

may propose data collection for primary analysis.

The individual research proposals should be typed in Times New Roman (black font size 12),

double-spaced with 1-inch margins, include in-text citations and references in APA format, and

submitted as an electronic copy by the deadline. The first draft of the research proposal should be

at least three (3) pages not including the cover page, abstract, and references page(s). The final

research proposal should be at least ten (10) pages not including the cover page, abstract, and

references page(s).

Attached what I’ve done so far it has been graded and reviewed already but I’m more than open to edits and add ins! This proposal will be used for two classes – Experimental Psych & Issues & Procedures of Criminal Justice Research

INDIVIDUAL PROJECT (RESEARCH PROPOSAL) 1. Identify a topic and conduct a literature search (Topic – Are Criminals Born or Bred: Is It as Simple as One or the Other?) 2. Complete an annotated bibliogra
Simmons 8 ARE CRIMINALS BORN OR BRED? Are Criminals Born or Bred: Is It as Simple as One or the Other? Iresha Simmons Department of Criminal Justice and Sociology, Jackson State University CJ 326-202: Issues and Procedures of Criminal Justice Research Instructor: Gina Hamilton, MA April 21, 2021 Are Criminals Born or Bred: Is It as Simple as One or the Other? We define a criminal as a person who has committed a crime. It does not matter whether the crime was a felony or a misdemeanor. Some have implored why some people have the habit of repeatedly perpetrating such crimes while others do not. Is it a matter of heredity, or is it a situation of free will where some have a natural desire to commit crimes? These questions have brought about a vigorous debate from the subject of criminology in the quest to find the source of criminal behavior in our society today and ways of dealing with such behavior in our communities. My hypotheses for the research are as follows: If an individual grows up in a poverty-stricken neighborhood, then they were made a criminal rather than born one; on the other hand, if an individual has no socioeconomic restraints and chooses a life of crime, then they have presumably held a criminal. In the course of my research, I hope to expound upon these revelations so that I may test the theory that a criminal must come about one one way or the other. I assume that every criminal has experienced one aspect or the other in their lifespan; the question remains, however, which is more prevalent when it comes to the crime rates in the United States. This research question is significant because it would answer the age-old question as to why crimes get committed. Psychologists have come up with many presumptions and motives as to why individuals commit crimes. The two major clarifications cite genetic and environmental components, which symbolize the nature versus nurture debate. Philosophers and scientists who believe that genetics plays a role in a person’s behavior argue that criminals are born. They refer to twin and adoption studies. On the other hand, some scientists and sociologists that consider that it is the environment, such as a person’s dealings with society, that models the behavior of the individual. For this theory, scientists refer to studies that have been conducted to prove that the community makes criminals. While there was not much choice for the research question I chose, my secondary data will come from an article found through the google scholar database, “The Cause of Crime,” written by Anthony Holzman-Escareno, various crime reports from the FBI, and a study from the Industrial Psychiatry Journal. I found these articles and data while researching the backgrounds of criminals and why they committed the crimes they committed. As I stated before thee is much statistical data on this topic so I had to make do with what I had. My data collection methods include the statistics mentioned in studies and some of my own references to crimes and criminals I’m familiar with. For example, Ted Bundy is a notorious serial killer and his case is well known throughout the U.S. Baeed on readings of his interviews and biographical history I made some inferences as to which end of the spectrum he would be on. I did this with John Wayne Gacy, Jeffrey Dahmer, Aileen Wuornos, and more to further established the prevalence of innate criminal mentality or acquired criminal mentality. I hope the data I collected helps readers come up with their own interpretation. There needs to be more study on who commits crime and why they decide to be an outlaw. Literature Review Each article I read about whether or not criminals are being made or are born agreed with one side or the other. They differed in their reasoning for the side of the argument they chose. Some even proposed the idea that the answer to the question was both. Each of the articles holds crucial facts about determining which side the criminal justice system should try to spot early. In essence, if criminals are made, what can be done about it, and if criminals are born, how can we stop them from committing crimes? The first article came from the Scottish Centre for Crime & Justice Research. Theories and Causes of Crime explain the various ideas of crime. The report focuses on biological and sociological theories. It also explains the different deterrents of crime and what it takes to curb criminal behavior. I also believe that this article gives the necessary information for pre-research. It has a fantastic amount of data. It helped determine whether I believed in an existing theory or if I had my own. The next article came from the New York Times and is titled Are Criminals Made or Born? It highlights that some sociologists believe that both options can be viable depending on the criminal’s situation. In the article, the authors clarify that their stance on the subject remains that different criminals are subjected to varying variables in their lives. Whether those variables are biological or social, we can predetermine what makes a criminal become a criminal. This article explains how the two theories can coincide. I think this article explains the inclusiveness of sociological research questions. There is never one answer. Next, we have Criminals – born or made an Irish Times article which focuses on whether or not the behavior of troubled children and teenagers is innately biological and inherited. The report also pens the question of whether criminal behavior the result of social withholding and ethical turmoil. It moves on to further analyze physical theories on the development of criminal behavior. Dr. Richard Lynn, Professor of Psychology at the University of Ulster and director of the Ulster Institute for Social Research, argues that criminal conduct has been increasing virtually throughout the Western world for 50 years because such behavior is passed on from father to son and the genetically deprived criminal underclass is breeding faster than the rest of society. I chose this article because it focuses on genetics and the possibility of criminal behavior being hereditary. Born to Be Criminal? What to Make of Early Biological Risk Factors for Criminal Behavior focuses on the “born criminal” aspect of my research question. It explains various theories’ deduction, but it focuses on whether criminology’s biological theory explains criminal behavior development. Sterzer references many other studies throughout this article that refer to the precursors of criminality. In the end, he puts forth the idea that some children and adolescents are made out to be criminals because of identifiers that may or may not explain the source of their deviance. I chose this article because it relates to other theories I have been exposed to, like labeling theory from Juvenile Justice and Corrections & Rehabilitation. Authors break down the various myths that are associated with the theories of criminology in Genetic Factors and Criminal Behavior. I think the article does a great job explaining that even if biological factors that indicate criminality are found, it doesn’t necessarily mean the person holding the characteristics will become a criminal. This article gives an insight into how the various theories can be both proven and disproven. This furthers my hypothesis that criminal behavior can be sourced through multiple avenues. Mednick and Tehrani helped me for the basis of my argument. Generics and Crime: Integrating New Genomic Discoveries Into Psychological Research About Antisocial Behavior focuses on the hypothesis that criminal behavior can derive from menial education levels. It poses the suggestion that improving school experiences might prevent genetic influences on crime from unfolding. It gives an alternative to precursors for criminal behavior. I chose this article to explain how criminal behavior can be curbed. I think it shows that even when genetic factors are present, a “criminal mind” can be molded to stick to the straight and narrow. I believe it helps in my proposal. Methods All data in this research proposal came from the following sources: an article found through the google scholar database, “The Cause of Crime,” written by Anthony Holzman-Escareno, various crime reports from the FBI via their Crime Data Explorer tool, and a study from the Industrial Psychiatry Journal Personality – Correlate of criminals: A comparative study between normal controls and criminals. I found these articles and data while researching criminal backgrounds and why they committed the crimes they committed. As previously stated, there is not much statistical data on this topic . Most of the information I was able to gather was case by case, so they did not correlate in any way. I compiled a list of an even number of famous serial killers, thieves, and other criminals and used that for my percentages besides the ones I found already established. Each source has its bearing of information. Each source brought an alternative set of characteristics to look at. References Holzman-Escareno, A. The Cause of Crime . https://hilo.hawaii.edu/campuscenter/hohonu/volumes/documents/Vol07x03TheCauseofCrime.pdf.  Sinha, S. (2016). Personality correlates of criminals: A comparative study between normal controls and criminals. Industrial psychiatry journal. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5248419/. 
INDIVIDUAL PROJECT (RESEARCH PROPOSAL) 1. Identify a topic and conduct a literature search (Topic – Are Criminals Born or Bred: Is It as Simple as One or the Other?) 2. Complete an annotated bibliogra
Are Criminals Born or Bred?: Is It as Simple as One or The Other? Iresha Simmons Department of Criminal Justice, Jackson State University CJ 326 Issues & Procedures Gina Hamilton, MA March 30, 2021 Literature Review Each article I read about whether or not criminals are being made or are born agreed with one side or the other. They differed in their reasonings for the side of the argument they chose. Some even proposed the idea that the answer to the question was both. Each of the articles holds crucial facts about determining which side the criminal justice system should try to spot early. In essence, if criminals are made, what can be done about it, and if criminals are born, how can we stop them from committing crimes? The first article came from the Scottish Centre for Crime & Justice Research. Theories and Causes of Crime explain the various ideas of crime. The report focuses on biological and sociological theories. It also explains the different deterrents of crime and what it takes to curb criminal behavior. I also believe that this article gives the necessary information for pre-research. It has a fantastic amount of data. It helped determine whether I believed in an existing theory or if I had my own. The next article came from the New York Times and is titled Are Criminals Made or Born? It highlights that some sociologists believe that both options can be viable depending on the criminal’s situation. In the article, the authors clarify that their stance on the subject remains that different criminals are subjected to varying variables in their lives. Whether those variables are biological or social, we can predetermine what makes a criminal become a criminal. This article explains how the two theories can coincide. I think this article explains the inclusiveness of sociological research questions. There is never one answer. Next, we have Criminals – born or made an Irish Times article which focuses on whether or not the behavior of troubled children and teenagers is innately biological and inherited. The report also pens the question of whether criminal behavior the result of social withholding and ethical turmoil. It moves on to further analyze physical theories on the development of criminal behavior. Dr. Richard Lynn, Professor of Psychology at the University of Ulster and director of the Ulster Institute for Social Research, argues that criminal conduct has been increasing virtually throughout the Western world for 50 years because such behavior is passed on from father to son and the genetically deprived criminal underclass is breeding faster than the rest of society. I chose this article because it focuses on genetics and the possibility of criminal behavior being hereditary. Born to Be Criminal? What to Make of Early Biological Risk Factors for Criminal Behavior focuses on the “born criminal” aspect of my research question. It explains various theories’ deduction, but it focuses on whether criminology’s biological theory explains criminal behavior development. Sterzer references many other studies throughout this article that refer to the precursors of criminality. In the end, he puts forth the idea that some children and adolescents are made out to be criminals because of identifiers that may or may not explain the source of their deviance. I chose this article because it relates to other theories I have been exposed to, like labeling theory from Juvenile Justice and Corrections & Rehabilitation. Authors break down the various myths that are associated with the theories of criminology in Genetic Factors and Criminal Behavior. I think the article does a great job explaining that even if biological factors that indicate criminality are found, it doesn’t necessarily mean the person holding the characteristics will become a criminal. This article gives an insight into how the various theories can be both proven and disproven. This furthers my hypothesis that criminal behavior can be sourced through multiple avenues. Mednick and Tehrani helped me for the basis of my argument. Generics and Crime: Integrating New Genomic Discoveries Into Psychological Research About Antisocial Behavior focuses on the hypothesis that criminal behavior can derive from menial education levels. It poses the suggestion that improving school experiences might prevent genetic influences on crime from unfolding. It gives an alternative to precursors for criminal behavior. I chose this article to explain how criminal behavior can be curbed. I think it shows that even when genetic factors are present, a “criminal mind” can be molded to stick to the straight and narrow. I believe it helps in my proposal. Methods All data in this research proposal came from the following sources: an article found through the google scholar database, “The Cause of Crime,” written by Anthony Holzman-Escareno, various crime reports from the FBI via their Crime Data Explorer tool, and a study from the Industrial Psychiatry Journal Personality – Correlate of criminals: A comparative study between normal controls and criminals. I found these articles and data while researching criminals’ backgrounds and why they committed the crimes they committed. As I stated before, there is not much statistical data on this topic, so I had to make do with what I had. Most of the information I was able to gather was case by case, so they didn’t correlate in any way. I compiled a list of an even number of famous serial killers, thieves, and other criminals and used that for my percentages besides the ones I found already established. Each source has its bearing of information. Each source brought an alternative set of characteristics to look at.
INDIVIDUAL PROJECT (RESEARCH PROPOSAL) 1. Identify a topic and conduct a literature search (Topic – Are Criminals Born or Bred: Is It as Simple as One or the Other?) 2. Complete an annotated bibliogra
Annotated Bibliography: Are criminals born or bred? Herrnstein, R. J., & Wilson, J. Q. (1985, August 4). ARE CRIMINALS MADE OR BORN? The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/1985/08/04/magazine/are-criminals-made-or-born.html. The article above showcases that some sociologists do believe that both options can be viable depending on the criminal’s situation. In the article, the authors make it clear that their stance on the subject remains that different criminals are subjected to different variables in their lives. Whether those variables are biological or social we can predetermine what makes a criminal become a criminal. This article explains how the two theories are able to coincide. I tink this article explains the inclusiveness of sociological research questions. There is never one answer. Holmquist, K. (1996, January 24). Criminals – born or made? https://www.irishtimes.com/culture/criminals-born-or-made-1.24591. This article focuses on whether or not the behavior of troubled children and teenagers innately biological and inherited. The article also pens the question is criminal behavior the result of social withholding and ethical turmoil. It moves on to further analyze biological theories pertaining to the development of criminal behavior. Dr. Richard Lynn, Professor of Psychology at the University of Ulster and director of the Ulster Institute for Social Research argues that criminal behavior has been increasing virtually throughout the Western world for 50 years because such behavior is passed on from father to son and the genetically deprived criminal underclass is breeding faster than the rest of society. I chose this article because it focuses on genetics and the possibility of criminal behavior being hereditary. The Scottish Centre for Crime & Justice Research. Theories and Causes of Crime. University of Glasgow. This article explains the various theories of crime. The article focuses on biological and sociological theories. It also explains the different deterrents of crime and what it takes to curb criminal behavior. I also believe that this article gives the necessary information for pre-research. It has an amazing amount of information. It was helpful in determining which theory I agreed with. Sterzer, P. (2010, January 1). Born to Be Criminal? What to Make of Early Biological Risk Factors for Criminal Behavior. American Journal of Psychiatry. https://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/10.1176/appi.ajp.2009.09111601. The article above focuses on the “born criminal” aspect of my research question. It explains the deduction of various theories, but it focuses on whether the biological theory of criminology explains the development of criminal behavior. Sterzer references many other studies throughout this article that refer to the precursors of criminality, In the end, he puts forth the idea that some children and adolescents are made out to be criminals because of identifiers that may or may not explain the source of ther deviance. I chose this article because it relates to other theories I have been exposed to like labeling theory from Juvenile Justice. Tehrani, J. A., & Mednick, S. A. Genetic Factors and Criminal Behavior. https://www.uscourts.gov/sites/default/files/64_2_4_0.pdf. In this article, the authors break down the various myths that are associated with the theories of criminology. I think the article does a great job of explaining that even if biological factors that indicate criminality are found it doesn’t necessarily mean the person holding the characteristics will become a criminal. This article gives an insight to how the various theories can be both proven and disproven. This furthers my hypothesis that criminal behavior can be sourced through multiple avenues. Mednick and Tehrani gave me the basis of my argument. Wertz, J., Caspi, A., & Belsky, W. (2018, March 7). Genetics and Crime: Integrating New Genomic Discoveries Into Psychological Research About Antisocial Behavior . SAGE Journals. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0956797617744542. This article focuses on the hypothesis that criminal behavior can derive from menial education levels. It poses the suggestion that improving school experiences might prevent genetic influences on crime from unfolding. It gives an alternative to precursors for criminal behavior. I chose this article to explain how criminal behavior can be curbed. I think it shows that even when genetic factors are present a “criminal mind” can be molded to stick to the straight and narrow. I believe it will help in my proposal.
INDIVIDUAL PROJECT (RESEARCH PROPOSAL) 1. Identify a topic and conduct a literature search (Topic – Are Criminals Born or Bred: Is It as Simple as One or the Other?) 2. Complete an annotated bibliogra
Iresha Simmons March 1, 2021 Issues & Procedures Hamilton While there wasn’t much choice for the research question I chose, my secondary data will come from an article found through the google scholar database, “The Cause of Crime,” written by Anthony Holzman-Escareno, various crime reports from the FBI via their Crime Data Explorer tool , and a study from the Industrial Psychiatry Journal Personality – Correlate of criminals: A comparative study between normal controls and criminals. I found these articles and data while researching the backgrounds of criminals and why they committed the crimes they committed. As I stated before thee is not much statistical data on this topic so I had to make do with what I had. Most of the information I was able to gather was case by case so they didn’t really correlate in any way. I compiled a list of an even number of names of famous serial killers, thieves, and other criminals and used that for my percentages besides the ones I found already established. Each source has its own bearing of information. Each source brought an alternative set of characteristics to look at.

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