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Enhancing Regular Communication 22 Enhancing Regular Communication: Washington Elementary School Name Date Institution Table of Contents Enhancing Regular Communication at Washington Elementary School Introduction In the past and recent years, industries have experienced significant transformations in various aspects, particularly communication. Today, internal and external communication is one of the most vital factors contributing to an organization’s long-term success. For this reason, most organizations focus on enhancing their internal communication elements to ensure they have effective communication. In the United States, the education industry is among the sectors experiencing changes in aspects of communication. For example, with recent COVID-19 disruptions, schools have a complex task ensuring that communication is practical and does not fail to promote institutional activities. Additionally, the majority of schools ranging from K-12 to higher learning institutions understand the essence of regular communication. Regular communication in elementary schools is a core factor in facilitating successful interaction between teachers and students. Notably, regular communication contributes to the beneficial and practical execution of responsibilities by teachers. In this sense, with a specific focus on Washington Elementary School, this case study focuses on enhancing regular communication in the school based on different models, including the interactive communication model, Johari Window model, Kuhnert, and Lewis’ transformational leadership theory, management theory, and the Hertzberg’s two-factor theory of motivation. There are several elementary schools located in the Springfield School District. One notable elementary school in this district is Washington Elementary School, located in Springfield, Massachusetts, United States. Washington Elementary School has a significant number of teachers and students who make up the school’s internal communication levels. Moreover, the school’s management is also involved in the communication process. Thus, focusing on regular communication at Washington Elementary School requires evaluating all parties that affect communication aspects. Several challenges impact regular communication at Washington Elementary School, including a lack of leader credibility, poor communication channels, and message delivery issues. In this sense, addressing regular communication at the elementary institution calls for presenting different ways of enhancing overall internal communication. Problem Statement Internal communication in elementary schools is a fundamental axis to the implementation and execution of learning-related activities. For this reason, elementary institutions must consider enhancing regular communication to ensure activities are well executed, and communication between the administration and the teachers is effective. This case study’s problem involves Washington Elementary School’s failure to promote regular communication between the administration and the teachers. Faculty members require constant and regular communication to ensure the administration and all teachers are in agreement with every activity that happens in the elementary school. Purpose of Research The case study focuses on the enhancement of regular communication at Washington Elementary School between faculty members and the school administration. Several factors can be associated with the purpose of this research. For example, this research seeks to analyze and present elements contributing to irregular communication at Washington Elementary School. Secondly, the research also explores the possibility of minimal effort directed towards improving communication channels between the administration and the teachers. Lastly, this research is essential for future reference in matters concerning internal communication in education institutions, particularly elementary schools in the United States. Research Questions The case study has utilized several research questions to enhance regular communication at Washington Elementary School. How do Washington Elementary School’s administration and teachers negatively impact the normal communication process? Why do the teachers and administration members at Washington Elementary School negatively affect the regular communication process? What measures should be taken in enhancing regular communication and eliminating ineffectiveness at Washington Elementary School? Methodology Used in Research In research, the methodology used influences the outcomes of that particular research. Thus, this research utilized effective research methods that provide significant information regarding the issue of communication in organizations. First, this research applies different models that can help bring out an understanding of organizational interactions and the communication process. Secondly, this paper also utilizes a literature review on communication since existing research plays an essential role in comprehending how communication plays out in an organization. Thirdly, the research also utilizes personal observations of activities at Washington Elementary School and the elementary institution’s overall communication aspect. Following these research methods, the research offers significant knowledge regarding possible communication challenges within Washington Elementary School and the opportunities available for regular communication enhancement. Methods of Analysis Interactive Communication Process Model Review Literature Review In organizations, communication comes out as a complicated process that requires extensive consideration for it to be successful. The interactive communication process framework defines communication as a procedure where individuals take different positions and turn as the receiver and sender (Manchón & Rodero, 2018). The process is successful when both the receiver and the sender generate meaningful information by receiving feedback and sending messages within psychological and physical settings. Instead of describing communication as a one-way and linear process, the interactive framework adopts feedback, making communication a two-way and interactive process. Feedback entails sent messages as a response to other messages. For instance, instructors may react to a student’s question in class, which indicates a successful communication process. The model’s inclusion of the feedback aspect makes it easier to understand individuals’ duties in the communication experience. The model explores two-sender receivers that exchange information. Several phases of communication are associated with the interactive communication framework. First, the sender encodes information as a message which can be transmitted nonverbally or verbally, depending on the context and environment. Secondly, the encoded message is transmitted to the receiver, whose role is to decode the sent information. The information is presented via a channel, contemplated as any medium applied in communicating media, emotion, images, music, data, and knowledge to the receiver. Conclusively, upon decoding the message, the receiver offers feedback to indicate receiving the information and comprehending its contents. These phases of communication complete the process, hence the interactive communication model. Johari Window Model Model Review Literature Review The Johari Window Model entails a tool applied to illustrate and improve mutual understanding and self-awareness between people. The framework is also utilized in enhancing group dynamics, group development, and connection of one group to another group. Following its essential elements, the Johari Window Model is usually used in supporting team development (Toolshero, 2020). In other words, the model helps individuals to comprehend their information exchange with others desirably. Additionally, the model has four distinct quadrants that help explain the framework’s essence in the communication process, including open space, blind sport, hidden area, and the unknown spot. First, the open area involves the known behavior by an individual and others. People can communicate concerning this information. However, in some cases, some information may be disturbing to the communication settings, and people are aware that the information is disturbing. The open aspect focuses on the information that people know about a person (Toolshero, 2020). For example, financial analysts and the people around them understand that they deal with finances and financial aspects. In other words, individuals that have significant knowledge about the financial analyst have an open space to communicate regarding this known information. Secondly, the blind spot quadrant explores things an individual does not know about themselves, but other people do. As an illustration, an employee can be late for a meeting, making them interrupt the meeting. After the meeting, the moderator can talk to the employee and advise them on their blind behavior and what they should do about it. The blind spot aspect focuses on the possibility that people know something about a person, which that person does not know. Thirdly, the hidden area aspect represents the action of keeping information and failing to share with others. For example, the clerk in the financial department may choose to hide information regarding his yoga classes. In this sense, the hidden area aspect comprises information individuals know about themselves but others do not (Toolshero, 2020). Lastly, the unknown quadrant involves a lack of communication due to unawareness between parties. The aspect explores a person’s behavior, including feelings, beliefs, and other things not known to that individual and others as well. Kuhnert and Lewis’ Transactional and Transformational Leadership Theory Model Review Literature Review Transactional and transformational leadership theories represent different aspects of leadership in organizations. Transactional leadership entails the exchanges where the subordinates and the superiors in an organization influence each other to derive value (Kuhnert $ Lewis, 1987). In other words, in transactional leadership, leaders focus on providing followers with what they require, so they give leaders what they want. Additionally, transactional leadership theory involves a dependence between leaders and followers, where both acknowledge the relationship as mutual. In situations involving the transactional theory application, leaders have significant influence because doing what the leaders in an organization want are the best alternative for everyone. Therefore, the transactional theory’s effective application depends on the leader’s capabilities to meet and react to the responses and transforming expectations of followers. On the other hand, transformational leadership is different from transactional leadership. For example, in transformational leadership, leaders work in an organization based on individual value systems, such as integrity and justice. According to Kuhnert and Lewis (1987), transformational leaders express their personal standards to bring followers together and alter their beliefs and goals. Transformational leadership theory is associated with increased performance levels among followers in an organization. Transformational leaders gain influence by displaying significant individual traits that affect leadership and followers. Transformational leadership’s personal traits include a robust conviction of moral beliefs, dominance, and self-confidence. The transactional and transformational leadership model applies different aspects of a leader and follower relationships. Management Theory Model Review In an organization, the most desirable management theory to apply when it comes to managing human relations is the behavioral management theory. In recent years, professionals focus more on human interests and interactions in organizational settings. Human interests play a significant role in fulfilling organizational needs and objectives. Thus, applying the behavioral theory of management promotes positive human interaction in an organization (Stajkovic & Luthans, 2003). Behavioral management theory is also described as a human relations model based on its reference to people’s relations. In other words, this management theory explores human dimensions in the workplace and other individual aspects. According to Stajkovic and Luthans (2003), behavioral aspects of people influence their relations in the workplace. For example, elements such as improved productivity, group dynamics, expectations, conflict, and motivation are all impacted by people’s behaviors. Additionally, effective communication at work also depends on individuals’ behavior and how they relate to other people in an organizational setting. Managers’ perspective of employees also determines the interactions in a firm. If the manager views employees positively, then they are likely to promote positive behavior. However, if the manager’s perspective is negative, employee behavior may be negative, affecting other organizational aspects such as communication. In this sense, as a management theory, the behavioral management model plays a significant role in an organization’s internal aspects. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation Model Review Literature Review In motivational and management theory, Fredrick Herzberg was one of the most recognized contributors to this field. Herzberg was determined to analyze the impact of attitude on a person’s motivation by focusing on times an individual felt bad and good about their jobs. He concluded that people who felt bad regarding their jobs provided completely different answers from those who felt bad about their work. Herzberg’s presentation is described as the two-factor theory of motivation and focuses on the management of employees in organizations. Herzberg recognized that there are two distinct sets of elements influencing job dissatisfaction and satisfaction. The theorist’s two significant factors entail hygiene factors (extrinsic motivators) and motivation factors (intrinsic motivators). First, extrinsic motivators (hygiene elements) tend to involve more fundamental and tangible requirements, such as those excluded by Maslow’s hierarchy of needs lower level. Hygiene factors include fringe benefits, salary, job security, and status. Organizational managers need to understand that failure to offer the expected and appropriate hygiene factors will cultivate job dissatisfaction and lower employee motivation. In turn, the firm’s performance will be affected (Alshmemri et al., 2017). Secondly, motivation factors (intrinsic motivators) entail emotional and less tangible requirements, such as those recognized in the ERG theory growth and relatedness category and Maslow’s higher levels. Motivation factors include growth potential, relationships, recognition, and challenging work. Moreover, managers must understand that, even though such needs are more conventional, they play an essential role in an organization’s success founded on strong team and individual performance. The Herzberg two-factor theory of motivation is different from other management theories due to its role in expectations from employees in an organization. Herzberg points out that extrinsic and intrinsic motivators present an inverse relationship. In other words, the absence of extrinsic motivators means reduced motivation, while the presence of intrinsic motivation factors means an increase in motivation (Alshmemri et al., 2017). These aspects are influenced by the expectations of employees from the organization. For instance, extrinsic motivators such as benefits and salaries are expected, so they do not play a significant role in increasing motivation when they are available. However, in case of absence, there will be dissatisfaction. On the contrary, intrinsic motivators such as growth potential and challenging work can boost motivation if available in an organization. Thus, Herzberg’s two-factor motivation theory plays an essential role in the management of employees and their performance. Research Findings How do Washington Elementary School’s administration and teachers negatively impact the regular communication process? Regular communication plays a crucial part when it comes to the effective and significant execution of activities in a firm. According to Kegeyan (2016), effective communication in an organization depends on the transmission of information from the top level to the subordinate level. In other words, the school administration passes information to the teachers as a usual communication process. The passing of information from top to bottom influences the outcomes of that communication. Poor use of channels can lead to miscommunication and irregular communication in a company. Thus, the transmission of information concerning the job rationale, organizational objectives, and processes must be regular for successful communication outcomes. Altering any message will lead to inaccuracy of communication, promoting the organization’s irregular transmission of information. Washington Elementary School displays some elements that adversely affect regular communication in the school. Through observation, Washington Elementary School’s administration and the faculty members have a negative relationship, leading to poor communication. For example, minimal communication from top-level administrators to the faculty members strains the communication relationship. Furthermore, after the learning program’s disruption in early 2020, the administration failed to communicate to the faculty members regarding the school’s closure. The faculty members had to find this out from email communication that came a week later. Such failures make the administration ineffective in its communication process hence leading to irregular communication. Why do the teachers and administration members at Washington Elementary School negatively affect the regular communication process? Several reasons can be associated with the failure of the administration and teachers at Washington Elementary School. First, the teachers fail to voice their concerns regarding the school administration’s lack of substantial communication. The teachers have never taken time to complain about the minimal and irregular communication from the school. The silence tends to make the administration think that everything is happening correctly at Washington Elementary School. Secondly, school administrators fail to identify gaps and elements that adversely affect the school’s regular communication process. Minimal communication between administrators and the teachers brings about an atmosphere of uncertainty in the school environment. In this sense, the teachers and administrators impact regular communication founded on their actions. What measures should be taken in enhancing regular communication and eliminating ineffectiveness at Washington Elementary School? Washington Elementary School can apply several models in enhancing regular communication. For example, focusing on the factors that disrupt regular communication at the school and ensure they are all analyzed and corrected. Secondly, the elementary school should also focus on creating a professional relationship that includes both the teachers and the administration. These procedures can help Washington Elementary School enhance regular communication. Moreover, the school can also utilize different theoretical models in enhancing regular communication. For example, the interactive communication process is essential as it helps with creating understanding between the administrators and the teachers. When both parties send messages to each other, the process can be enhanced to ensure effective sending and receiving messages. Additionally, transactional and transformational leadership can also be beneficial to the organization. The administrators need to focus on the expectations of teachers regarding communication and ensure they are met. The administrators should also explore their abilities as factors that can help enhance the administrator-teacher relationship. Herzberg’s theory can also be used to sense that intrinsic and extrinsic motivators are available for the teachers and the administrators. Management plays a significant role in promoting communication-based on the relationship between leaders and followers. Therefore, the application of the management theory can help enhance regular communication. Findings Summary Interactive Communication Process Johari Window Model Incorrect application of communication channels Lack of top-down transmission Poor communication Vulnerability demonstration Individual-awareness Collaboration Common comprehension Kuhnert and Lewis Leadership Theory Management/ Herzberg Theory Style of organization management and motivational behavior Employee and management expectations Individual abilities/ aspects Motivation (internal and external) Individual drive Management approach Management-employee relationship Recommendations Based on findings analysis, this research presents several recommendations that can help Washington Elementary School enhance regular communication. First, school administrators must demonstrate tolerance and comprehension, which contributes to identifying various substantial, socially created identities. Secondly, creating a communication model at Washington Elementary School can help ensure the top-down communication process I regular and effective. The practical communication process will enhance communication between the school administrators and the teachers. Finally, implementing and executing communication training programs can also help Washington Elementary School enhance its internal regular communication process. References Manchón, L. M., & Rodero, E. (2018). The Interactive Communication Process (ICP): A model for integrating science, academia, and profession. Communications, 43(2), 173-207. Kuhnert, K. W., & Lewis, P. (1987). Transactional and transformational leadership: A constructive/developmental analysis. Academy of Management review, 12(4), 648-657. Stajkovic, A. D., & Luthans, F. (2003). Behavioral management and task performance in organizations: conceptual background, meta‐analysis, and test of alternative models. Personnel Psychology, 56(1), 155-194. Alshmemri, M., Shahwan-Akl, L., & Maude, P. (2017). Herzberg’s two-factor theory. Life Science Journal, 14(5), 12-16. Kegeyan, S. E. (2016). Intercultural communication in the workplace and the role of communication in an organization. International Journal of Professional Science, (2). Toolshero. (2020, October 07). The Johari Window Model. Retrieved 31 October 2020 from https://www.toolshero.com/communication-skills/johari-window-model/

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