Need help with a small lab report on Genetics. The report guidelines, the notes powerpoint and results to analyze are attached. please ask if there are any questions

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Need help with a small lab report on Genetics. The report guidelines, the notes powerpoint and results to analyze are attached.

please ask if there are any questions about this report

Need help with a small lab report on Genetics. The report guidelines, the notes powerpoint and results to analyze are attached. please ask if there are any questions
PCR LABORATORY REPORT GUIDELINES Title: – the title of your report needs to be complete and provide a good summary of what was investigated in the experiment including the target population. “PCR Report” alone is NOT an adequate title. Abstract – A brief summation of the objectives, results and conclusions of the experiment. The abstract should not be more than 2 paragraphs. It is helpful to write this section last. Introduction –2 to 3 pages summarizing the relevant background information that relates to the investigation being undertaken. Include an outline of the mechanism of PCR as well as information about the D1S80 locus. The final 1-2 paragraphs of the introduction are a statement of the specific objectives of your work. All of this section is written in complete sentences. Don’t forget to include REFERENCES with appropriate referencing format (see below)! Methods – Outline the methods used in your experiment in paragraphs (do not number the steps). The methods should be detailed enough that you could repeat the experiment using the methods section you write for this report. This section is written in the PAST TENSE. Although the use of the first person (“I stirred the mixture while it was on the hotplate.”) is becoming more acceptable in scientific writing, for this report it is expected that you will write in the third person (“The mixture was stirred on the hotplate.”) Methods will include: DNA sample preparation, PCR amplification of DNA samples, Agarose electrophoresis of amplified DNA & a description of the method of size determination you have chosen to use for this report. You may use either the Excel program or eye estimation to determine the base pair sizes of all unknowns. Choose whichever method you feel is most accurate. You must outline the PROS of your method of size determination in this section and outline the CONS of your method of size determination in the discussion section. Don’t forget to REFERENCE the lab manual with appropriate referencing format (see below)! Results – Data will be provided to you for BOTH lab sections for analysis, so there are two PCR gel photos that will need to be analyzed. The 50 bp molecular weight ladder that was used contains DNA fragments ranging in size from 150 bp to 750 bp in increments of 50 bp. The 500 bp band will be labeled for you on each of the gels. For the measurements, use the rulers on the gel photos to measure distances (in mm) to the front edge of each fluorescent band for the ladder fragments and unknown fragments. Results will include: a table of known ladder sizes and their migration distances (mm) as well as the migration distances (mm) of all unknown sample bands in each gel. Just ONE ladder needs to be measured per gel. Use the ladder and your chosen method of size determination (visual or Excel) to determine the fragment sizes (in base pairs) for all samples run on each gel and present these bp sizes in a table. Based on the fragment size determination (in bp) of each sample band, use table 1 below to assign the most likely alleles present and genotypes to as many of the class members as possible based on the electrophoresis results. Then calculate the allele frequencies within the class population (show a sample calculation). Compare the class frequencies to the available literature values in table 1 by including the expected frequencies for the Sajantila study in your results table (highlighted below). Table 1: Frequency in US Caucasians and sizes of alleles based on the number of repeats of the core units Allele (number of core units) Approximate length (bp) Freq. in U.S. Caucasians (Sajantila et al., 1992) 15 382 16 398 17 414 18 430 0.293 19 446 0.011 20 462 0.021 21 478 0.032 22 494 0.043 23 510 0.016 24 526 0.335 25 542 0.037 26 558 0.016 27 574 0.000 28 590 0.059 29 606 0.059 30 622 0.016 31 638 0.043 32 654 33 670 34 686 35 702 36 718 37 734 0.000 38 750 39 766 40 782 41 798 Some students will have ONE sample band and be homozygous (two copies of the SAME allele). Other students will have TWO sample bands and be heterozygous (two DIFFERENT alleles). Include whether students are homozygous or heterozygous in your data table and calculate the frequency of heterozygosity (show sample calculation). Also remember that the Results section contains commentary ABOUT the results and analysis; IT IS NOT merely a collection of tables and graphs. In general, you should begin the Results section with this commentary and refer to the appropriate tables and graphs throughout. INTEGRATE the entire section. Tables and graphs must be numbered and have TITLES. The title must be informative so that a reader has a good idea of what the table is all about even if it is seen in isolation. Titles for tables go ABOVE the table and titles for graphs go BELOW. Discussion – a comprehensive analysis and discussion of the implications of the experiment completed. Any analytical questions found below must be answered within the discussion, BUT it is NOT merely a collection of these answers. Literature and/or text REFERENCES must be included, with appropriate referencing format (see below). Make sure to compare the class’s allele distribution to what is outlined in table 1 above. Which alleles occurred more frequently in the class population? Were the results as expected? Why or why not? Sources of error? Outline the relative proportions of heterozygous and homozygous individuals in the class population. Were the results as expected? Why or why not? Sources of error? Outline the CONS of your method of size determination and how it may be affecting your results Outline experimental errors that could explain why bands couldn’t be observed for all individuals. A summary conclusion will complete the report. References – will be needed throughout the report whenever you present information from an outside source (journal article, textbook, lab manual etc). You should reference at least FOUR different outside sources for this report. DO NOT USE DIRECT QUOTATIONS! Within the text of the report use the citation style that includes the author(s) names and the date of publication (Watson & Crick, 1953; Maniatis et al., 1982). In other courses, you may have used a single number to identify a reference, but is NOT to be used in this report. The (Author, Date) form of referencing MUST be used! The reference section at the end of the report consists of a listing of the sources used in the preparation of the report. The references are listed alphabetically by the first author’s last name, all authors are listed (i.e. do not use the et al. designation here), date of publication, article title, journal name, volume number (and issue number if appropriate), and page numbers. Similar information is required to reference information from a book and in addition, for a book the publisher and publishing location is also required. Again if you have any questions regarding format, please ask before submitting your report. (See below for examples.) Book example: Note that the book title appears in italics. Maniatis, T., Fritsch, E.F. and Sambrook, J. 1982. Molecular Cloning. A Laboratory Manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboraotry, Cold Spring Harbor, NY. pp. 11-15. Journal example: Note that the Journal name is in italics and the volume number is in bold. Watson, J.D. and Crick, F.H.C. 1953. A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid. Nature 171: 737-738. Lab Manual example: Warszycki, L. 2021. Winter Term Molecular Genetics & Genomics Lab Manual. Biology Department. University of Winnipeg. pp___ *note the specific page numbers used
Need help with a small lab report on Genetics. The report guidelines, the notes powerpoint and results to analyze are attached. please ask if there are any questions
Lab 5 PowerPoints MolGen Lab Photo Sample Calculation for Allele Frequency Assume that 8 students in the class had visible bands (results) on the electrophoresis gel Each student has TWO alleles 8 students x 2 alleles = total of 16 alleles to be assigned If I assign allele 18 four times, then the frequency of allele 18 in this class population is: 4/16 = 0.25 Assume that 8 students in the class had visible bands (results) on the electrophoresis gel If 6 of those students had TWO bands on the gel (were heterozygous at this locus) Then the frequency of heterozygosity would be: 6 heterozygous students/8 students total = 0.75 Sample Calculation for Frequency of Heterozygosity

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