Please reply to the 2 seperate below discussion post with 150 – 250 words and APA citations
- Chapter 8 & 9 in Project Management: A Managerial Approach
- Chapter 8 & 9 PowerPoints from Project Management: A Strategic Managerial Approach
- Part 1, Chapters 6 & 9 in A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge
- Viswanathan, B. (2015, Apr 8). Understanding responsibility assignment matrix (RACI Matrix). Retrieved from http://project-management.com/understanding-responsibility-assignment-matrix-raci-matrix/
- Hassan, B., Ahmad, N., & Zuhaira, B. (2018). Calculating completeness of software project scope definition. Information and Software Technology, 94, 208-233.
- Batts, B. (2016). Three steps to accurate project cost estimates. InTech, 63(4), 24-29.
leveling occurs when tasks, money, or activities need to be
re-allocated or intermediate deadlines readjusted in order to account or
resource shortfalls. Resource leveling tries to enforce certain
constraints (time or people) on the project. This approach can be used
when certain critical resources are only available at certain times,
only in certain quantities, or are over-allocated, like when someone has
been assigned to two different parts of a project simultaneously
Resource smoothing changes the activities of a project model so that
resources are not over-stretched. In resource smooth, we achieve a
desired level of allocation as much as we can without impacting the
total project with total float. In smoothing, there is no deviation
from the critical path and project completion dates are usually not
delayed. Activities, however, might be delayed within their free float,
meaning that they can be delayed.
One example of resource leveling would be the following situation:
you’re building a two-story structure. You have enough materials for
the first story, but not for the second, so you look around and secure
those materials but this would mean delaying the construction by one
whole week. You extend the schedule to get the needed resource. This
is “resource leveling” (Afsari, 2016).
One example of resource smoothing would be knowing that you need to
study for ten hours to succeed on a particular test, with the test being
in two days. So you have to study for 5 hours a day. But suddenly the
professor gets sick and you realize that you can’t take it until next
week, meaning that you only have to study for a little more than one
hour per day between now and the test. You can see how this would ease
the burden of studying for the exam.
Works Cited: Afsari, Mahtab. (2016). Providing a Suitable Model for Solving Resource Leveling in Project Management. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences 7(52), pp. 116-121.
Bagheri, Mohsen. (2012). Resource Leveling in Fuzzy Project Scheduling. Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management Istanbul, Turkey. July 3-6, 2012.
What are resource leveling and resource smoothing?
Resource leveling and resource smoothing both focus on balancing the
supply of resources with the demand for those resources (Project
Management Institute, 2017). Meredith, Mantel, & Shafer (2017)
state that resource leveling is used when resources have been under or
over-allocated. The PM reallocates or levels out, these resources,
potentially changing the schedule to accommodate the change. In
contrast, resource smoothing is used when the schedule cannot be
changed. The resources are evenly reallocated within the allocated time
(Meredith et al., 2017).
What is the impact on the critical path, and how is “float” used in leveling and smoothing resources?
Dash (2018) states that resource leveling will impact the critical
path while resource smoothing will not. This can be attributed to the
fact that only resource leveling can be applied to critical path
resources. However, both resource leveling and resource smoothing can
use free and total float. Float is the term for the “difference between
the early dates and the latest possible dates” (Dash, 2018).
Give an example of leveling and smoothing resources on a project you know or can find through research.
Based on my research, I created the following example of leveling and
smoothing resources. The PM is scheduling a project to rehab a
building. The PM has the materials and the manpower for the main part
of the building. However, the materials and requisite manpower for the
rest of the building will not be available until later in the month.
The PM, under resource leveling, will extend the schedule until the
resources are available. In contrast, the PM will, under resource
smoothing, need to find a way to reallocate the resources within the
Dash, S. N. (2018, July 6). PMP prep: Resource leveling and
resource smoothing. Retrieved from
Meredith, J.R., Mantel, S.J., & Shafer, S.M. (2017). Project management: A managerial approach (10th ed.). Hoboken: Wiley
Project Management Institute. (2017). A guide to the project management body of knowledge (PMBOK® Guide) (6th ed.). Newton Square, PA: PMI Publications