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I have to write a reply to each of the texts in the document attached below, they must be 200 words each and include references.

Text #1

Yara Nieves

Methodologies in Nursing

Research methods used in nursing can be broadly classified into quantitative and qualitative approaches. Quantitative methods utilize experimental designs, surveys, and other empirical strategies to collect numerical data that can be statistically analyzed (Polit & Beck, 2021). Common quantitative designs include randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which are considered the gold standard for testing interventions. RCTs randomly assign participants to experimental and control groups to determine if a cause-and-effect relationship exists between the intervention and outcomes.

Cohort studies prospectively follow groups of individuals over time to investigate how exposures impact outcomes. Case-control studies compare people with a condition (cases) to similar people without the condition (controls) to identify potential risk factors. Cross-sectional surveys collect data at a single point in time to examine relationships between variables. While unable to prove causation, these observational designs are useful for exploratory research. Quantitative analysis involves descriptive and inferential statistics.

Qualitative research employs non-numerical techniques like interviews, focus groups, participant observation, and document review to understand human experiences, behaviors, and social contexts (Sandelowski, 2019). Approaches seen in nursing research include phenomenology, which explores the lived experiences of a specific phenomenon. Grounded theory aims to generate a theory grounded in data from the field to explain a process or action. Ethnography provides a rich cultural description of a group through prolonged engagement. Narrative inquiry collects and analyzes participants’ stories. Qualitative analysis relies on thematic coding and interpretation. Examples of qualitative approaches seen in nursing include phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, and narrative inquiry.

Another categorization is by level of inquiry (Burns & Grove, 2020). Descriptive studies observe and document aspects of a situation as it naturally occurs. Conceptual/theoretical research develops and tests mid-range theories. Methodological research focuses on refining methods. Applied research investigates interventions to solve practical problems. Overall, nursing utilizes diverse quantitative and qualitative methodologies spanning multiple levels of inquiry to build the evidence base and advance the discipline (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2019).


Burns, N., & Grove, S. K. (2020). Understanding nursing research: Building an evidence-based practice (7th ed.). Elsevier.

Melnyk, B. M., & Fineout-Overholt, E. (2019). Evidence-based practice in nursing & healthcare: A guide to best practice (4th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.

Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2021). Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice (11th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.

Sandelowski, M. (2019). Rigor or rigor mortis? The problem(s) of rigor in qualitative research revisited. Advances in Nursing Science, 42(2), 107–115.

404 words

Text #2

Tania Cesar

Nursing Research Methodologies Classification

Research approaches used in nursing research can be categorized according to their goals, strategies, and techniques for gathering data in a number of ways. I’ll go over a categorization of popular research approaches in nursing research here:

Quantitative Research:

Experimentation: In this kind of study, one or more variables are changed in order to see the results (Polit & Beck, 2021). In nursing research, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are a popular example of an intervention’s effect on patient outcomes being investigated.

Research Without Experiments: Studies that do not involve human subjects, like cross-sectional studies or cohort studies, concentrate on observing and evaluating the associations between variables without making any changes to them.

Qualitative Research:

Phenomenological Research: This method seeks to characterize and comprehend people’s actual experiences. In the nursing profession, this may entail learning about the experiences of patients, carers, or medical professionals.

Grounded Theory Research:

Grounded theory aims to create hypotheses or conceptions based on actual facts. In nursing, it is frequently employed to develop theories based on participant experiences and views.

Ethnographic Research:

To obtain a thorough grasp of the people, practices, and concerns within a particular cultural or healthcare environment, ethnographers immerse themselves in the milieu. This is helpful to nurses who are researching how culture affects healthcare.

Analysis of textual, visual, or audio data—typically from documents or interviews—is done through content analysis. It can be used in nursing to examine interview transcripts, nursing notes, and patient records.

Research Using Mixed methodologies: This type of study integrates both qualitative and quantitative methodologies into one investigation. This can give a more thorough understanding of intricate nursing phenomena by including participant opinions and numerical data.

Action Research:

In action research, practitioners and researchers work together to pinpoint and resolve particular issues or difficulties in healthcare environments. It highlights workable alternatives and has the potential to enhance nursing practice.

Descriptive Research:

Descriptive studies are designed to give a thorough explanation of a particular nursing problem or phenomena. This category includes surveys, case studies, and observational research.

Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses:

Although they are not research procedures in and of themselves, systematic reviews and meta-analyses are crucial to nursing research. Systematic reviews entail a thorough examination of all available research on a particular subject, whereas meta-analyses statistically integrate data from several studies to produce more reliable results.

Survey Research:

To gather information from a large number of respondents, surveys are frequently employed in the nursing field (Houser, 2018). They can be used to gauge the opinions of healthcare providers, acquire demographic data, or evaluate patient satisfaction.

Longitudinal Research:

By gathering data over a protracted length of time, longitudinal studies enable researchers to monitor alterations or advancements in patient populations, interventions, or health outcomes.

Secondary Data Analysis:

To address nursing research concerns, researchers may examine already-existing datasets, such as national health surveys or electronic health records. This method can produce insightful results at a reasonable cost.

These divisions offer a structure for comprehending the wide variety of research approaches applied in nursing research. The study topic, goals, resources at hand, and the characteristics of the phenomenon under study all influence the approach selection. In order to guarantee the validity and reliability of their findings while meeting the unique requirements of the nursing sector, researchers frequently choose the most suitable methodology.


Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2021). Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice (11th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.

Houser, J. (2018). Nursing research: Reading, using, and creating evidence (4th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning.

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