research essay you will be expected to use a minimum of three academic sources (in addition to the course materials). These sources may include scholarly books or journal articles. The essay must be

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you will be expected to use a minimum of three academic sources (in addition to the course materials). These sources may include scholarly books or journal articles. The essay must be between 5-6 pages double-spaced. You must include a clear thesis statement that outlines an argument, and this thesis statement should be placed at the end of the introductory paragraph. In addition,  in-text citations are a must (Chicago style preferred but APA and MLA are acceptable), and a bibliography is required at the end of the essay. **Wikipedia and other web pages may NOT be used as sources for this essay.

research essay you will be expected to use a minimum of three academic sources (in addition to the course materials). These sources may include scholarly books or journal articles. The essay must be
Evil in Dracula Chapters 14-21   Chapter 14 This chapter starts off with Mina transcribing her husband’s journal and she is horrified by what she reads   Interestingly she also writes “How he must have suffered, whether it be true or only imagination” – again rekindling that sense of doubt in the reader as to whether or not Harker’s experiences were a dream or reality   This chapter starts off with Mina transcribing her husband’s journal and she is horrified by what she reads   Interestingly she also writes “How he must have suffered, whether it be true or only imagination” – again rekindling that sense of doubt in the reader as to whether or not Harker’s experiences were a dream or reality     Harker’s Memory Returns Van Helsing reads Harker’s diary and returns to see the couple at breakfast the next day  Van Helsing’s belief in Jonathan’s observations restores the young man’s memories of his time in Transylvania  Realizing that Dracula must indeed have journeyed to England, Harker begins a new diary   Van Helsing reads Harker’s diary and returns to see the couple at breakfast the next day  Van Helsing’s belief in Jonathan’s observations restores the young man’s memories of his time in Transylvania  Realizing that Dracula must indeed have journeyed to England, Harker begins a new diary     Lucy as the Bloofer Lady Van Helsing reads the newspaper accounts of the “Bloofer Lady,” noting that the abducted children always reappear with wounds on their necks similar to those that appeared on Lucy’s neck   Seward is skeptical of any connection, but his mentor urges him to believe in the possibility of the supernatural  Van Helsing suddenly concludes that it must be Lucy who is responsible for the marks on the children’s necks   Van Helsing reads the newspaper accounts of the “Bloofer Lady,” noting that the abducted children always reappear with wounds on their necks similar to those that appeared on Lucy’s neck   Seward is skeptical of any connection, but his mentor urges him to believe in the possibility of the supernatural  Van Helsing suddenly concludes that it must be Lucy who is responsible for the marks on the children’s necks     Analysis Van Helsing’s role in this chapter also solidifies his position as the leader of these men – knowledgeable in all areas of thought (science and religion!)   His affirmations validate the occurrences in the diary for both Jonathan and Mina  We seem to get confirmation in this chapter that Lucy is not dead  Van Helsing’s role in this chapter also solidifies his position as the leader of these men – knowledgeable in all areas of thought (science and religion!)   His affirmations validate the occurrences in the diary for both Jonathan and Mina  We seem to get confirmation in this chapter that Lucy is not dead    Chapter 15 Seward is shocked by Van Helsing’s suggestion that Lucy could be responsible for the assaults on local children   The two men visit one of the wounded children and find that the marks on the child’s neck are identical to Lucy’s   That same night, Seward and Van Helsing go to Lucy’s tomb, open the coffin, and they find that it is empty   Seward is shocked by Van Helsing’s suggestion that Lucy could be responsible for the assaults on local children   The two men visit one of the wounded children and find that the marks on the child’s neck are identical to Lucy’s   That same night, Seward and Van Helsing go to Lucy’s tomb, open the coffin, and they find that it is empty     Closing In on Lucy Seward thinks that maybe a grave robber might have taken Lucy’s body, but Van Helsing tells him to keep watch at one side of the churchyard   Seward sees a “white streak” moving quickly between the trees then he and Van Helsing approach and find a child lying nearby   Seward thinks that maybe a grave robber might have taken Lucy’s body, but Van Helsing tells him to keep watch at one side of the churchyard   Seward sees a “white streak” moving quickly between the trees then he and Van Helsing approach and find a child lying nearby     Lucy’s Fate Once the two men go back to Lucy’s tomb and find her laying in the coffin and “radiantly beautiful,” does Seward feel the “horrid sense of the reality of things.”   Van Helsing tells Seward that Lucy belongs to the realm of the “Un-Dead” and he argues that they have to decapitate Lucy, fill her mouth with garlic, and then drive a stake through her heart   The  entire group of men decide to go through with the plan but Holmwood has a hard time with the impending act of violence  Once the two men go back to Lucy’s tomb and find her laying in the coffin and “radiantly beautiful,” does Seward feel the “horrid sense of the reality of things.”   Van Helsing tells Seward that Lucy belongs to the realm of the “Un-Dead” and he argues that they have to decapitate Lucy, fill her mouth with garlic, and then drive a stake through her heart   The  entire group of men decide to go through with the plan but Holmwood has a hard time with the impending act of violence    Analysis Seward starts to feel a sense of the ‘uncanny’ – he sees and experiences things that he previously thought to be impossible  The way to kill the vampire is to drive a stake through the heart (fighting a supernatural threat with violence?)  Seward starts to feel a sense of the ‘uncanny’ – he sees and experiences things that he previously thought to be impossible  The way to kill the vampire is to drive a stake through the heart (fighting a supernatural threat with violence?)    Chapter 16 That night, the four men go to Lucy’s grave and find it empty  Van Helsing seals the door of the tomb with Communion wafers to prevent the vampire Lucy from going back into the tomb   Eventually, a figure appears, dressed entirely in white and carrying a child   That night, the four men go to Lucy’s grave and find it empty  Van Helsing seals the door of the tomb with Communion wafers to prevent the vampire Lucy from going back into the tomb   Eventually, a figure appears, dressed entirely in white and carrying a child     Confrontation The men confirm that it is Lucy—or rather, a monster that looks like Lucy, with eyes “unclean and full of hell-fire” and a mouth stained with fresh blood   As the men surround her, she drops the child and calls out seductively to Holmwood, telling him to come to her and he is taken in by her charm  The men confirm that it is Lucy—or rather, a monster that looks like Lucy, with eyes “unclean and full of hell-fire” and a mouth stained with fresh blood   As the men surround her, she drops the child and calls out seductively to Holmwood, telling him to come to her and he is taken in by her charm    Lucy as an Embodiment of Evil Van Helsing jumps in between them and pulls out a crucifix which he holds out toward Lucy   She recoils as if the crucifix has some power over her – this is clearly an example of the crucifix’s efficacy as an apotropaic device because the so-called evil embodiment of Lucy is repelled by it   Van Helsing jumps in between them and pulls out a crucifix which he holds out toward Lucy   She recoils as if the crucifix has some power over her – this is clearly an example of the crucifix’s efficacy as an apotropaic device because the so-called evil embodiment of Lucy is repelled by it     Confirmation Van Helsing quickly removes the Communion wafers, and the vampire slips through the door of her tomb   Holmwood is now convinced after witnessing this scene that Van Helsing was right and that they must go through with the unpleasant task of mutilating Lucy’s body   Van Helsing quickly removes the Communion wafers, and the vampire slips through the door of her tomb   Holmwood is now convinced after witnessing this scene that Van Helsing was right and that they must go through with the unpleasant task of mutilating Lucy’s body     Lucy’s Salvation The following evening, he comes back to the tomb to hammer a stake through Lucy’s heart   Van Helsing reassures Holmwood that he has saved Lucy’s soul from eternal darkness and has given her peace at last   Before leaving the tomb, Van Helsing makes plans to reunite with the men two nights later, so that they may discuss the “terrible task” before them   The following evening, he comes back to the tomb to hammer a stake through Lucy’s heart   Van Helsing reassures Holmwood that he has saved Lucy’s soul from eternal darkness and has given her peace at last   Before leaving the tomb, Van Helsing makes plans to reunite with the men two nights later, so that they may discuss the “terrible task” before them     Analysis Communion wafers as a means of protection making a physical barrier  The mutilation of Lucy’s body can be understood in two ways: either an honourable death to return Lucy to a state of purity in death and/or an act that mirrors a sexual consummation of Holmwood and Lucy’s relationship  Communion wafers as a means of protection making a physical barrier  The mutilation of Lucy’s body can be understood in two ways: either an honourable death to return Lucy to a state of purity in death and/or an act that mirrors a sexual consummation of Holmwood and Lucy’s relationship    Chapter 17 At Van Helsing’s urging, Jonathan and Mina Harker come to stay with Seward at the asylum  Seward reads the Harkers’ journals, realizing for the first time that Dracula may well be his next-door neighbor and that there may be a connection between the vampire’s proximity and Renfield’s behavior   At Van Helsing’s urging, Jonathan and Mina Harker come to stay with Seward at the asylum  Seward reads the Harkers’ journals, realizing for the first time that Dracula may well be his next-door neighbor and that there may be a connection between the vampire’s proximity and Renfield’s behavior     Discoveries During this same time, Jonathan researches the boxes of earth that were shipped from Transylvania to England   He discovers that all fifty were delivered to the chapel at Dracula’s estate, but worries that some might have been moved elsewhere in recent weeks   Harker seems to have recovered from his ordeal in Transylvania  During this same time, Jonathan researches the boxes of earth that were shipped from Transylvania to England   He discovers that all fifty were delivered to the chapel at Dracula’s estate, but worries that some might have been moved elsewhere in recent weeks   Harker seems to have recovered from his ordeal in Transylvania    Analysis Dracula is in close proximity and based on the details Stoker includes, it appears that he is closing in and the build-up to the final showdown has begun  The missing boxes are further cause for concern  Dracula is in close proximity and based on the details Stoker includes, it appears that he is closing in and the build-up to the final showdown has begun  The missing boxes are further cause for concern    Chapter 18 With Seward’s permission, Mina visits Renfield and he quickly swallows his flies before she arrives  But in her presence he is rational and coherent – this suggests two possibilities: either Mina’s goodness brings out the ‘good’ in Renfield OR Mina herself will be susceptible to the evil that exists within Renfield and his connection to Dracula   With Seward’s permission, Mina visits Renfield and he quickly swallows his flies before she arrives  But in her presence he is rational and coherent – this suggests two possibilities: either Mina’s goodness brings out the ‘good’ in Renfield OR Mina herself will be susceptible to the evil that exists within Renfield and his connection to Dracula     Next Steps Van Helsing compliments Mina on her work but hopes that she will be spared a role in the business before them   The destruction of the vampire, he notes, is “no part for a woman.”   Therefore, their quest to stop Dracula is viewed as dangerous manly work that Mina is not to take part in   Van Helsing compliments Mina on her work but hopes that she will be spared a role in the business before them   The destruction of the vampire, he notes, is “no part for a woman.”   Therefore, their quest to stop Dracula is viewed as dangerous manly work that Mina is not to take part in     Nosferatu Van Helsing gathers the entire company and tells them the legend of the nosferatu, or “Un-Dead.”   These creatures are immortal and possess an un-human amount of strength  They also have the ability to command animals and the elements of nature; and can disappear or even change their bodily form whenever they want   Van Helsing gathers the entire company and tells them the legend of the nosferatu, or “Un-Dead.”   These creatures are immortal and possess an un-human amount of strength  They also have the ability to command animals and the elements of nature; and can disappear or even change their bodily form whenever they want     Weakness But these creatures also have certain weaknesses  For example, they cannot survive without blood; as we saw earlier, they cannot enter a house unless they have been invited  They also lose their powers at once the sun comes up and so they are only active at night time  Once the morning comes, they have to find shelter somewhere in the earth or a coffin; crucifixes also seem to drain them of their evil powers as do Communion wafers, and other holy objects   But these creatures also have certain weaknesses  For example, they cannot survive without blood; as we saw earlier, they cannot enter a house unless they have been invited  They also lose their powers at once the sun comes up and so they are only active at night time  Once the morning comes, they have to find shelter somewhere in the earth or a coffin; crucifixes also seem to drain them of their evil powers as do Communion wafers, and other holy objects     Renfield The entire company asks to see Renfield   They gather, and he makes a remarkably rational and passionate plea to be released at once in order to avoid terrible consequences  Fearing that this sudden display of sanity is but “another form or phase of his madness,” Seward denies Renfield’s request   The entire company asks to see Renfield   They gather, and he makes a remarkably rational and passionate plea to be released at once in order to avoid terrible consequences  Fearing that this sudden display of sanity is but “another form or phase of his madness,” Seward denies Renfield’s request     Analysis We learn more about how vampires operate, what type of power they have, and what their weaknesses are  The men also decide to engage Dracula in order to save themselves from succumbing to same evil that took Lucy  We learn more about how vampires operate, what type of power they have, and what their weaknesses are  The men also decide to engage Dracula in order to save themselves from succumbing to same evil that took Lucy    Chapter 19 The men head over to Dracula’s estate bringing holy objects with them for protection  There is no sign of Dracula in the chapel, but there is a terrible smell, and the men find a bunch of the boxes they were looking for but some are missing  Rats begin to fill the chapel, which appear to function in a similar fashion as the bats and wolves in that they serve as a literary device to signal the uncanny or ‘evil’   The men head over to Dracula’s estate bringing holy objects with them for protection  There is no sign of Dracula in the chapel, but there is a terrible smell, and the men find a bunch of the boxes they were looking for but some are missing  Rats begin to fill the chapel, which appear to function in a similar fashion as the bats and wolves in that they serve as a literary device to signal the uncanny or ‘evil’     Mina Mina records her increasing level of anxiety in her diary and one night in the asylum, she wakes up after hearing strange sounds from Renfield’s room and finds that her window is open even though she is pretty sure that she closed it – what does this tell us about female characters in general?   Even though Mina is the picture of purity and goodness, she too seemingly opens the window. Is this on her own volition? Does she possess the same characteristics as Lucy? Did she invite Dracula in as well?   Mina records her increasing level of anxiety in her diary and one night in the asylum, she wakes up after hearing strange sounds from Renfield’s room and finds that her window is open even though she is pretty sure that she closed it – what does this tell us about female characters in general?   Even though Mina is the picture of purity and goodness, she too seemingly opens the window. Is this on her own volition? Does she possess the same characteristics as Lucy? Did she invite Dracula in as well?     Dracula’s Attack Mina stares out the window at a thin streak of white mist that slowly creeps across the yard toward the asylum, seeming to have a “sentience and a vitality of its own.”   Mina sleeps fitfully and wakes to find a “pillar of cloud” in her room and she sees a “livid white face” bending over her, but assumes this figure is merely part of her dream   Mina stares out the window at a thin streak of white mist that slowly creeps across the yard toward the asylum, seeming to have a “sentience and a vitality of its own.”   Mina sleeps fitfully and wakes to find a “pillar of cloud” in her room and she sees a “livid white face” bending over her, but assumes this figure is merely part of her dream     Analysis Mina’s experience parallels Harker’s – is she dreaming or is her experience real?  Another case that illustrates the vulnerability of the subconscious/unconscious   And what is Mina’s role in Dracula’s apparent entrance?  Mina’s experience parallels Harker’s – is she dreaming or is her experience real?  Another case that illustrates the vulnerability of the subconscious/unconscious   And what is Mina’s role in Dracula’s apparent entrance?    Chapter 20 Mina starts exhibiting similar symptoms to Lucy  Harker also notes that Mina is more ‘affectionate’ than she normally is – a clear indicator that she too has begun a transformation much like Lucy   Mina starts exhibiting similar symptoms to Lucy  Harker also notes that Mina is more ‘affectionate’ than she normally is – a clear indicator that she too has begun a transformation much like Lucy     Other Changes Seward continues to observe rapid changes in Renfield’s behavior   He seems to have given up his interest in eating living things but he still talks about his earlier wish for life   Soon after, he is found in his cell covered in blood  Seward continues to observe rapid changes in Renfield’s behavior   He seems to have given up his interest in eating living things but he still talks about his earlier wish for life   Soon after, he is found in his cell covered in blood    Analysis Mina seems to have begun a similar transformation to Lucy but the details seem different  Mina is married, has not exhibited any overt sexuality or interest in other men, and she has been presented so far as an ideal woman: strong but loyal and modest  Mina seems to have begun a similar transformation to Lucy but the details seem different  Mina is married, has not exhibited any overt sexuality or interest in other men, and she has been presented so far as an ideal woman: strong but loyal and modest    Chapter 21 Renfield admits to the other men that Dracula often visited him, promising him flies, spiders, and other living creatures from which to gain strength in return for Renfield’s obedience   When Mina visits him, Renfield sees her pale features and concludes that Dracula had been “taking the life out of her.”   Renfield admits to the other men that Dracula often visited him, promising him flies, spiders, and other living creatures from which to gain strength in return for Renfield’s obedience   When Mina visits him, Renfield sees her pale features and concludes that Dracula had been “taking the life out of her.”     Dracula & Renfield When Dracula attempts to enter his room that night, Renfield tries to grab hold of him  But Dracula of course was the more powerful of the two and his eyes “burned” Renfield, and he is easily thrown across the room as Dracula makes his escape  Renfield becomes the battlefield for this struggle between good and evil, much like Lucy had become earlier in the novel   When Dracula attempts to enter his room that night, Renfield tries to grab hold of him  But Dracula of course was the more powerful of the two and his eyes “burned” Renfield, and he is easily thrown across the room as Dracula makes his escape  Renfield becomes the battlefield for this struggle between good and evil, much like Lucy had become earlier in the novel     Mina’s Room The men rush upstairs to the Harkers’ room but they find it locked, so they have to break down the door  They walk into an unsettling scene: Jonathan lies unconscious, Mina kneels on the edge of the bed (again also a posture for praying but in this case for something sinister involving Dracula), and Dracula stands over her as she drinks from a wound on his breast   The men rush upstairs to the Harkers’ room but they find it locked, so they have to break down the door  They walk into an unsettling scene: Jonathan lies unconscious, Mina kneels on the edge of the bed (again also a posture for praying but in this case for something sinister involving Dracula), and Dracula stands over her as she drinks from a wound on his breast     Dracula’s Escape Dracula turns on the intruders, his eyes flaming with “devilish passion,” but Van Helsing holds up a sacred Communion wafer and the count retreats  All that is left of Dracula is a faint vapor escaping under the door  Morris chases it and sees a bat flying away from Carfax – suggesting that Dracula again is capable to changing his appearance and bodily form   Dracula turns on the intruders, his eyes flaming with “devilish passion,” but Van Helsing holds up a sacred Communion wafer and the count retreats  All that is left of Dracula is a faint vapor escaping under the door  Morris chases it and sees a bat flying away from Carfax – suggesting that Dracula again is capable to changing his appearance and bodily form     Mina’s ‘infection’ Mina and Jonathan then both regain consciousness and Mina relays parts of the story that she remembers – she awoke that night to find Jonathan unconscious beside her and Dracula stepping out of a mist   The count threatened to kill her husband if Mina made a sound and he drank blood from her throat, telling her that it was not the first time he had done so  Mina and Jonathan then both regain consciousness and Mina relays parts of the story that she remembers – she awoke that night to find Jonathan unconscious beside her and Dracula stepping out of a mist   The count threatened to kill her husband if Mina made a sound and he drank blood from her throat, telling her that it was not the first time he had done so    Role Reversal Then, slicing his own chest open, he pressed her lips to the cut and forced her to drink his blood  Dracula taunts the upstanding moral characters such as the doctors and tells Mina that he will make her “flesh of my flesh.”   Mina cries out, “God pity me! Look down on a poor soul in worse than mortal peril!”   Then, slicing his own chest open, he pressed her lips to the cut and forced her to drink his blood  Dracula taunts the upstanding moral characters such as the doctors and tells Mina that he will make her “flesh of my flesh.”   Mina cries out, “God pity me! Look down on a poor soul in worse than mortal peril!”     Analysis Dracula is perverting an image of a nursing mother: rather than giving life by offering milk, Dracula tries to guarantee Mina’s death by feeding her his blood   Even though Mina is being forced to participate, she is in a position of power  This scene also perverts the Eucharist and the ritual sacred consumption of blood  Dracula is perverting an image of a nursing mother: rather than giving life by offering milk, Dracula tries to guarantee Mina’s death by feeding her his blood   Even though Mina is being forced to participate, she is in a position of power  This scene also perverts the Eucharist and the ritual sacred consumption of blood 
research essay you will be expected to use a minimum of three academic sources (in addition to the course materials). These sources may include scholarly books or journal articles. The essay must be
Evil in Dracula Ch. 8-14   The negative connotations associated with bats stems from the Medieval folklore about witches and their connection to bats   The “evil” designation and later association with vampires their status as nocturnal animals   The species designated as “vampire bat” which lives primarily in Central and South America was unknown to Europeans during the Victorian Era when Stoker was writing about vampires and bats   Bats! Bats!   On August 10, Mina wakes up and sees that Lucy’s bed is empty (at night!) and she goes outside to find Lucy and sees her in the churchyard, reclining on her favorite bench with a dark figure bending over her   As Mina approaches, the figure looks toward her, exposing a pale face and gleaming red eyes   When Lucy wakes, Mina finds “two little red points like pin-pricks” on her friend’s neck  Chapter 8 Chapter 8   After this episode, Lucy’s sleepwalking seemed to get worse and Mina tries to stop Lucy from leaving the bedroom by locking the door  They go for a walk and see the dark figure in the graveyard (death) and Lucy notes the red eyes  That night, Mina awakes to find Lucy sitting up in bed, pointing to the window and when Mina looks outside she sees a large bat in the moonlight   Lucy sleeps peacefully after the bat departs  Protecting Lucy Protecting Lucy   During the next few days, Lucy grows pale (recall the original description of Dracula himself as pale) and the puncture wounds at her throat grow larger   Mina really starts to worry at this point – Lucy’s state of mind and physical health seems to be deteriorating and her fiancée is still missing   Lucy’s Declining Health Lucy’s Declining Health   Mina’s journal entry is followed by a letter from a Whitby solicitor, ordering the boxes of earth from the Demeter to be delivered to the estate that Dracula has purchased   There is no more mystery regarding the ‘tall thin man’ from the ship that didn’t look like the other crewmen – we can confirm that this intruder was count Dracula   Whitby Solicitor Whitby Solicitor   Lucy’s health seems to be slowly getting better   News comes that Jonathan has appeared in a Hungarian hospital because he was suffering from brain fever   A nun in that works in the hospital writes to Mina that Harker has been rambling incoherently due to some type of stress or shock to his psychological state and that he has mentioned things like wolves, poison, blood, ghosts, and demons   Mina prepares to travel to Romania  Mina’s News Mina’s News   The narrative shifts to John Seward’s accounts of his patient Renfield, who has become violent and maniacal and he tells the doctor that “the Master is at hand.” (ie. coincides with Dracula’s arrival)  Renfield escapes and runs to the estate that Dracula purchased and Dr. Seward finds him pressing against the door of the mansion’s chapel, calling out to his master and promising obedience   Dr. Seward Dr. Seward   The pin-pricks on Lucy’s neck confirm that she has been ‘infected’ by Dracula (‘contagion’ or ‘impurity’)  Lucy is now depicted as a helpless ‘damsel in distress’ figure while Mina is really the only female character that possesses any strength or intelligence  Renfield’s strange behaviour serves to reinforce the “power” that Dracula seems to have over people (ie. as a supernatural force of evil)  Analysis Analysis   Mina writes from Romania, telling Lucy that Jonathan is experiencing amnesia and memory loss about his time there   Jonathan is still in possession of his diary and knows that the cause of his brain fever is recorded in it  He turns the diary over to Mina, making her promise that she will never mention what is written there unless some “solemn duty” requires it – they seal it and decide to get married immediately  Chapter 9 Chapter 9   Meanwhile, Renfield has become more docile, repeatedly mumbling, “I can wait; I can wait.”   But he escapes again and turns up once more at the door of the chapel at Carfax  When Dr. John Seward follows with his attendants, Renfield moves to attack, but grows calm at the sight of a great bat sweeping across the face of the moon (opposite reaction of Lucy)  Renfield Renfield   In the next section we get some insight into Lucy’s state of mind because she begins a diary, in which she records bad dreams and recounts that something scratches at her window in the night   Lucy has become pale and weak (again) and the men call Dr. Van Helsing after Seward can’t make a diagnosis  He does a quick exam and determines Lucy is losing blood but can’t figure out why – he travels back home to Amsterdam but returns shortly when Lucy’s condition becomes worse  Van Helsing Van Helsing   Lucy’s transformation begins – from a pure virginal maiden into a figure of overt female sexuality – almost a predatory character   The binary between good and evil becomes slightly blurred during Lucy’s transformation – is she good? Is she bad? Is she both? How does her sexuality contribute to her transformation?  At this point, ‘good women’ = pure, chaste, virginal  Lucy seems to be shifting away from this ideal  Analysis Analysis   When Van Helsing arrives to find Lucy terribly pale and unable to breathe easily, he transfuses Holmwood’s blood into Lucy   Though Seward is convinced that these wounds caused her severe loss of blood, he can offer no explanation for them   Van Helsing orders Seward to stay up with Lucy that night and Lucy awakes feeling much restored (ie. presence of ‘good’ where Seward is the apotropaic device)  Chapter 10 Chapter 10   But the next night when Seward falls asleep he and Van Helsing find Lucy pale and completely drained of strength in the morning   Seward performs another transfusion, this time providing the blood himself – transfer of blood   The battle between good and evil is happening in Lucy’s body and she is the medium for this struggle   Lucy as the Field of Battle Lucy as the Field of Battle   Van Helsing orders Lucy to wear white garlic flowers around her neck as a means of protection  Seward is sceptical at this intervention  Historically, garlic has been associated with health and restorative powers but how garlic becomes the tool of choice to ward off vampires is not clear  Use of Garlic as Protective Device Use of Garlic as Protective Device   Seward’s inability to diagnose or stem the progression of Lucy’s illness demonstrates the effectiveness of Dracula’s assault on normative Victorian social protocol and also exposes the limits of Western science and reason   Although Van Helsing proves himself a competent medical professional by performing one blood transfusion after another, neither his methods nor his knowledge are restricted to the teachings of Western medicine  Analysis Analysis   In the morning, Van Helsing and Seward rush to their patient to find her near death because certain flowers were removed from her room   Only another blood transfusion from Van Helsing resuscitates her (the third source of male blood!)   Van Helsing issues a warning to Lucy’s mother not to remove anything from her room  Chapter 11 Chapter 11   A newspaper clipping reports that a large wolf escaped from the Zoological Gardens   Seward’s September 17 diary entry reports that Renfield attacks the young doctor in his office, and cuts his wrist. Renfield proceeds to lick up the blood, and repeats, over and over, the phrase, “The blood is the life!”   Strange Occurrences Strange Occurrences   On the night of the wolf’s escape, Lucy awakens, frightened by a flapping at the window and a howling outside – the window shatters and the wolf appears  Terrified, Lucy’s mother tears the garlic wreath from her daughter’s neck and suffers a fatal heart attack   As Lucy loses consciousness, she sees the wolf draw his head back from the window and hides her diary entry in her clothing so “they shall find it when they come to lay me out.”   Lucy & the Wolf Lucy & the Wolf   Lucy’s blood transfusions occur frequently and they serve two important metaphorical functions   First, the transfusions confirm the moral purity of the men who give the blood; The blood itself is morality and purity in liquid form   Second, the transfusions hint at a kind of sexual intimacy that Victorian society prevented Stoker from writing about openly in the 1890s – The transfer of the men’s blood into Lucy’s veins has physiological effects similar to those of sex – the draining of bodily fluid from the man   But Lucy is only restored temporarily (ie. fatal flaw?)  Analysis Analysis   Arriving at Lucy’s the next day, Van Helsing and Seward find the scene of destruction: the maids unconscious on the dining room floor, Lucy’s mom is dead, and Lucy once again at death’s door, with terrible, mangled wounds at her neck   Neither of the men can spare any more blood, but Lucy’s third suitor, Quincey Morris, appears and agrees to provide blood for yet another transfusion  They still can’t figure out the connection between blood loss and the wounds on her neck because there is no evidence of blood loss at the site    Chapter 12 Chapter 12   Mina writes a letter informing Lucy that she and Jonathan have married and have returned to England although at this point she doesn’t know about any of these terrible events   Dr. Seward’s assistant writes to tell him that Renfield escaped again and attacked two men carrying boxes of earth from Dracula’s estate   Plot Developments Plot Developments   Van Helsing surrounds his dying patient with garlic, but she pushes the flowers away as she sleeps   When Seward checks on Lucy during the night, he notices a bat hovering near her window   The wounds on Lucy’s neck disappear and they sense that Lucy is nearing the end of her life, so the doctors awaken Holmwood and bring him to say good-bye   Final Transformation Final Transformation   In a seductive voice, Lucy begs Holmwood to kiss her, but Van Helsing pulls him away, instructing him to kiss Lucy only on the forehead   Holmwood complies with Van Helsing’s instructions, and Lucy dies, recovering in death the ‘beauty’ that she lost during her long illness   Lucy’s Death Lucy’s Death   The disappearance of Lucy’s wounds and her physical death signify the completion of her transformation  Dracula’s attack has transformed a model of English chastity and purity into an openly sexual predator   When Holmwood visits Lucy for the last time, her physical appeal startles him: “she looked her best, with all the soft lines matching the angelic beauty of her eyes.” Equally startling is the newfound forwardness with which she demands sexual satisfaction: “Arthur! Oh, my love, I am so glad you have come! Kiss me!”   Analysis Analysis   Lucy’s burial: Van Helsing covers the coffin and body with garlic and places a crucifix in Lucy’s mouth   He tells a confused Seward that after the funeral, they must cut off Lucy’s head and take out her heart but the next day they discover the crucifix is gone  Looking at Lucy’s unnaturally beautiful corpse, Holmwood cannot believe she is really dead   Chapter 13 Chapter 13   Mina writes in her diary that in London she and Jonathan have seen a tall, fierce man with a black mustache and beard and Jonathan is convinced the man is Count Dracula – causes a reaction in Harker  Mina decides she must read his diary entries from his time in Transylvania and the same night Mina find’s out about Lucy’s death  The Journal The Journal   This message is followed by an excerpt from a local paper, which reports that a number of children have been temporarily abducted in Hampstead Heath—the area where Lucy was buried—by a strange woman whom the children call the “Bloofer Lady.”   When the children come home after encountering this woman they have strange wounds on their necks   The term “bloofer” is most likely a child’s mispronunciation of the word beautiful, which of course seems to illustrate a link to the recently deceased Lucy   The Bloofer Lady The Bloofer Lady   Lucy is contrasted with Mina where the former is presented as a danger or perversion of ideal womanhood while Mina is the ideal (sweet, noble, and modest according to Van Helsing)  Lucy’s fatal flaw: her sexual desire  Recalling Van Helsing’s lesson in vampire lore, we know that Dracula is powerless to enter a home unless invited – so Dracula would not have been able to access Lucy’s bedroom unless she invited him in (responsibility?)  Analysis Analysis
research essay you will be expected to use a minimum of three academic sources (in addition to the course materials). These sources may include scholarly books or journal articles. The essay must be
Fall 2021 RLGN 1440 – Evil in World Religions Dracula Essay Instructions Dracula Essay Assignment – due date: November 4, 2021 *Late assignments will not be accepted unless there has been a case of medical or family emergency The purpose of this research essay is to explore a particular form of “evil” in Bram Stoker’s novel Dracula. This is a research essay and students will be expected to use a minimum of three academic sources (in addition to the course materials). These sources may include scholarly books or journal articles. The essay must be between 5-6 pages double-spaced (12-pt new times roman font and default margins). Students must include a clear thesis statement which outlines an argument, and this thesis statement should be placed at the end of the introductory paragraph. In addition, students are expected to include a title page (name, student number, course information & essay title), in-text citations (Chicago style preferred but APA and MLA are acceptable), and a bibliography at the end of the essay. **Wikipedia and other webpages may NOT be used as sources for this essay. Essay Topic: The purpose of this essay is to explain how Bram Stoker articulates his understanding of evil in his portrayal of female characters in the novel. In your essay, you will want to address some of the following issues: What are the key differences between the female characters in the book? How does Stoker present female sexuality in the novel? How does this tie into his religious worldview (ie. how did Christian teachings/ideologies about sex and reproduction influence Stoker’s presentation of these characters)? The main goal of the essay is to craft an argument about how/why Stoker presents female sexuality in a particular way and how this connects to his views on Christianity. Research Materials: The best place to find scholarly source materials is through online databases available at the University of Manitoba library. The two most useful databases are JSTOR and EBSCO, which are interdisciplinary databases that have access to thousands of scholarly journals. Students can access these sites and search terms such as “Dracula” + “evil” + “Christianity” and the database will retrieve relevant academic articles. Helpful sources might include literary analyses and reviews of Stoker’s novel. Grading Criteria: The research essay will be graded on the following criteria: presence of a thesis statement/argument, quality of research materials, use of research materials and evidence from the novel, level of engagement with the essay topic, grammar/spelling/syntax, citation style, organization and structure, flow, coherence, and format. Letter Grade Rubric: A+ (95%-100%) A paper in this category will be exceptional. It will be insightful, demonstrate an excellent understanding of the source materials and have outstanding organization, structure, and grammar/style. There should be no errors in citation formatting and the paper will have an appropriate number of paraphrased sections interspersed with direct quotations. Papers in this category will also use excellent academic sources and engage with those sources at a high level. A (86%-94%) A paper in this category will be very well done. It will provide both clear description or the issues and insightful analysis using evidence from the academic source materials. There should be almost no grammatical or stylistic errors and the paper will have good flow, organization and citation style should be consistence and correct. B+ (80%-85%) A paper in this category will be quite well done. The descriptive content should be clear and the analysis should be engaged with the academic sources. The level of sophistication will be slightly lower than an ‘A’ paper but should still demonstrate a clear understanding of the source material. Papers in this category should also use relevant examples from the text in the analytical portions. Grammatical and stylistic errors will be at a minimum.  B (71%-79%) A paper in this category will be well done. The paper may not be as sophisticated as a ‘B+’ or may border on descriptive and lack a sustained analysis. The organization and structure should be good but improvements could be made. There may be a few grammatical and stylistic errors throughout and citation formatting should be relatively accurate. Sources used will be relevant but again, there may be room for improvement in this area.  C+ (65%-70%) A paper in this category will be satisfactory and meet the basic requirements of the assignment. The paper might be more descriptive than analytical and there might also be structural/organizational issues with the essay. The source materials may be good but the engagement with them in the essay could be improved.  C (56%-64%) A paper in this category will be sufficient but there are significant issues with some of the following categories: use of sources, analysis, organization, citation style, grammar/style. D (50%-55%) A paper in this category will not really be the requirements of the assignment but an attempt has been made. The essay does not meet the length requirements, number of sources, or have a clear analytical component. Sufficient use of and engagement with source materials is not evident in the paper.  F (Less than 50%) There is no attempt to meet the requirements of the assignment. Or there is a serious issue with plagiarism.
research essay you will be expected to use a minimum of three academic sources (in addition to the course materials). These sources may include scholarly books or journal articles. The essay must be
History of the Vampire The image of the vampire is one that possibly dates back to pre-modern times but only became popularized in the west around the early 1800’s   Many Eastern European countries (Romania for example) had a long mythological tradition about these creatures who belonged to the realm of the undead and relied on the blood of the living to survive   The image of the vampire is one that possibly dates back to pre-modern times but only became popularized in the west around the early 1800’s   Many Eastern European countries (Romania for example) had a long mythological tradition about these creatures who belonged to the realm of the undead and relied on the blood of the living to survive     Success of Dracula Stoker’s work became one of the most successful literary works on the vampire   First, Stoker’s novel addresses the concerns and anxieties of late Victorian England (sexuality, science, religion, etc.)  Second, we see a lot of imagery which pits the “evil” nature of the vampire against “good/Christian” forces (emphasis on religious symbolism)  Third, recent scholarship has applied different theories of interpretation (particularly that of Freudian psychoanalysis which looks at sexuality, repression, danger, disgust, etc.)  Stoker’s work became one of the most successful literary works on the vampire   First, Stoker’s novel addresses the concerns and anxieties of late Victorian England (sexuality, science, religion, etc.)  Second, we see a lot of imagery which pits the “evil” nature of the vampire against “good/Christian” forces (emphasis on religious symbolism)  Third, recent scholarship has applied different theories of interpretation (particularly that of Freudian psychoanalysis which looks at sexuality, repression, danger, disgust, etc.)    Format Dracula doesn’t follow a normative pattern of narration as we find in some novels  There are letters, journal entries, transcriptions, newspaper articles, and a ship log   Each section contributes something important to the narrative and setting the scene  Dracula doesn’t follow a normative pattern of narration as we find in some novels  There are letters, journal entries, transcriptions, newspaper articles, and a ship log   Each section contributes something important to the narrative and setting the scene    Major Themes The relationship between sexuality, death, and religious morality is something that is seen throughout the novel  As we will see when we read through Mary Douglas’ work Purity and Danger, the significance of a social taboo is very important  Lastly, the connection between science and religion is explored in various ways  The relationship between sexuality, death, and religious morality is something that is seen throughout the novel  As we will see when we read through Mary Douglas’ work Purity and Danger, the significance of a social taboo is very important  Lastly, the connection between science and religion is explored in various ways    Chapter 1 Dracula begins with the diary kept by Jonathan Harker  Harker plans to take notes throughout his journey so that he can share the details of his adventures with his fiancée  In his first diary entry, Harker describes the picturesque countryside of Eastern Europe and he talks about the ‘exotic’ food he has tasted at the roadside inns – ‘Othering’  Dracula begins with the diary kept by Jonathan Harker  Harker plans to take notes throughout his journey so that he can share the details of his adventures with his fiancée  In his first diary entry, Harker describes the picturesque countryside of Eastern Europe and he talks about the ‘exotic’ food he has tasted at the roadside inns – ‘Othering’    Strange Occurrences After spending the might at an inn, the innkeeper’s wife delivers an ominous warning: She reminds Harker that it is the eve of St. George’s Day, when “all the evil things in the world will have full sway.”   St. George was a Roman soldier that converted to Christianity and legend says that he slayed a dragon, which is representative of Satan or the devil  After spending the might at an inn, the innkeeper’s wife delivers an ominous warning: She reminds Harker that it is the eve of St. George’s Day, when “all the evil things in the world will have full sway.”   St. George was a Roman soldier that converted to Christianity and legend says that he slayed a dragon, which is representative of Satan or the devil    Religious Imagery The innkeeper puts a crucifix around his neck  Harker is an Anglican and he seems to think that this kind of ‘Catholic practice’ is idolatrous and maybe even a bit superstitious  But he takes the crucifix anyway  The innkeeper puts a crucifix around his neck  Harker is an Anglican and he seems to think that this kind of ‘Catholic practice’ is idolatrous and maybe even a bit superstitious  But he takes the crucifix anyway    Journey to Transylvania Harker takes a coach to the castle and Stoker sets a scene of discontent: people are speaking a language Harker cannot understand, the people on the coach make the sign of the cross at him as a means of protection (from what??), and as night approaches, the pace of the horses speeds up and he gets the sense that they are just travelling in circles  Harker takes a coach to the castle and Stoker sets a scene of discontent: people are speaking a language Harker cannot understand, the people on the coach make the sign of the cross at him as a means of protection (from what??), and as night approaches, the pace of the horses speeds up and he gets the sense that they are just travelling in circles    The Scene Stoker uses various literary mechanisms to put the reader in a state of unease: dark and stormy night, the howling of wild wolves, arrival at the castle during the night, ‘strange behaviour from the peasants’, etc.   Stoker uses various literary mechanisms to put the reader in a state of unease: dark and stormy night, the howling of wild wolves, arrival at the castle during the night, ‘strange behaviour from the peasants’, etc.     Chapter 1 Analysis Harker seems to consider these apotropaic devices ‘superstitious’ at the beginning and he even doubts the reality of his own experience  Harker’s experience suggests that the foundational elements of Western civilization—reason, scientific advancement, and economic power—are threatened by the unknown, the Others, or what might be considered ‘alternative knowledge’ (ie. what Harker classifies as superstition)   Harker seems to consider these apotropaic devices ‘superstitious’ at the beginning and he even doubts the reality of his own experience  Harker’s experience suggests that the foundational elements of Western civilization—reason, scientific advancement, and economic power—are threatened by the unknown, the Others, or what might be considered ‘alternative knowledge’ (ie. what Harker classifies as superstition)     Freud’s ‘Uncanny’ Harker’s description of his ascent to the castle as “uncanny” foreshadows the psychological horror of the novel – In 1919, Sigmund Freud published an essay called “The Uncanny,” in which he analyzed the implications of feelings and sensations that arouse “dread and horror.”   Freud concludes that uncanny experiences generally occur in two specific situations: First, they can arise when primitive, supposedly disproved beliefs suddenly seem to be confirmed or validated once again. Like for example, when Harker (who likely doesn’t believe in the existence of were-wolves) encounters the howling wolves along the way. Second, the uncanny can arise when repressed infantile complexes are revived   Harker’s description of his ascent to the castle as “uncanny” foreshadows the psychological horror of the novel – In 1919, Sigmund Freud published an essay called “The Uncanny,” in which he analyzed the implications of feelings and sensations that arouse “dread and horror.”   Freud concludes that uncanny experiences generally occur in two specific situations: First, they can arise when primitive, supposedly disproved beliefs suddenly seem to be confirmed or validated once again. Like for example, when Harker (who likely doesn’t believe in the existence of were-wolves) encounters the howling wolves along the way. Second, the uncanny can arise when repressed infantile complexes are revived     Chapter 2 After a lengthy wait outside, Dracula finally appears and welcomes Harker  He is dressed all in black and has the following features: he is a tall old man, who is clean-shaven aside from a long, white moustache, pale skin, sharp teeth (ie. animal or predator)   Harker notes the strong grip of his handshake and that his ice-cold hands are more like those of a dead man than a living one   After a lengthy wait outside, Dracula finally appears and welcomes Harker  He is dressed all in black and has the following features: he is a tall old man, who is clean-shaven aside from a long, white moustache, pale skin, sharp teeth (ie. animal or predator)   Harker notes the strong grip of his handshake and that his ice-cold hands are more like those of a dead man than a living one     The Next Day Harker wakes up and Dracula is absent so Harker explores the castle and finds no servants and no mirrors  Dracula meets Harker in the evening and they chat about work but also about the pervasiveness of evil spirits in Transylvania  Harker describes the house that the count has purchased: it is an old mansion called Carfax and it is isolated, with only a ‘lunatic asylum’ and an old chapel nearby (juxtaposition of good and evil)  Harker wakes up and Dracula is absent so Harker explores the castle and finds no servants and no mirrors  Dracula meets Harker in the evening and they chat about work but also about the pervasiveness of evil spirits in Transylvania  Harker describes the house that the count has purchased: it is an old mansion called Carfax and it is isolated, with only a ‘lunatic asylum’ and an old chapel nearby (juxtaposition of good and evil)    The Shaving Incident Dracula walks into the room while Harker is shaving and he is so startled that he accidentally cuts himself   He also notices that the count has no reflection in the mirror, which scares him – readers in Victorian England would know the implication – that this monster has no soul   Harker is also afraid by Dracula’s reaction to the sight of his blood: the count lunges for his  throat, leaving him alone only after touching the string of beads that holds Harker’s crucifix (ie. rosary)  Realization: All of the doors are locked and Harker comes to the conclusion that he is a prisoner in the castle  Dracula walks into the room while Harker is shaving and he is so startled that he accidentally cuts himself   He also notices that the count has no reflection in the mirror, which scares him – readers in Victorian England would know the implication – that this monster has no soul   Harker is also afraid by Dracula’s reaction to the sight of his blood: the count lunges for his  throat, leaving him alone only after touching the string of beads that holds Harker’s crucifix (ie. rosary)  Realization: All of the doors are locked and Harker comes to the conclusion that he is a prisoner in the castle    Chapter 3 That night, the two men speak about the history of Transylvania and Dracula speaks enthusiastically of the country’s people and battles, and he is proud of his family name  He also tells Harker to write letters to his fiancée and employer, telling them that he will extend his stay in Transylvania by a month and Harker agrees but feels like he has no other option   When Harker goes to bed, he hangs his crucifix above his bed(for protection)  and once he thinks the count is gone he resumes his exploration of the castle  He sees Dracula crawling down the sheer face of the castle   That night, the two men speak about the history of Transylvania and Dracula speaks enthusiastically of the country’s people and battles, and he is proud of his family name  He also tells Harker to write letters to his fiancée and employer, telling them that he will extend his stay in Transylvania by a month and Harker agrees but feels like he has no other option   When Harker goes to bed, he hangs his crucifix above his bed(for protection)  and once he thinks the count is gone he resumes his exploration of the castle  He sees Dracula crawling down the sheer face of the castle     Vampire Sisters Harker forces a locked room open and falls asleep  Harker is visited—(maybe in a dream, maybe in reality)—by three beautiful women with inhumanly red lips and sharp teeth and they fill him with ‘burning desire’  Just as one of the women bends and places her lips against his neck, Dracula sweeps in, ordering the women to leave Harker alone and says, “When I am done with him you shall kiss him at your will,” the count tells them  To appease them, Dracula offers them a bag containing a small, “half-smothered” child and Harker drifts into unconsciousness   Harker forces a locked room open and falls asleep  Harker is visited—(maybe in a dream, maybe in reality)—by three beautiful women with inhumanly red lips and sharp teeth and they fill him with ‘burning desire’  Just as one of the women bends and places her lips against his neck, Dracula sweeps in, ordering the women to leave Harker alone and says, “When I am done with him you shall kiss him at your will,” the count tells them  To appease them, Dracula offers them a bag containing a small, “half-smothered” child and Harker drifts into unconsciousness     Analysis Harker is visited by the three female vampires, who dance seductively and their appearance in the room where Harker is sleeping is undeniably sexual, as Harker’s description suggests  He notes “the ruby of their voluptuous lips” and feels “a wicked, burning desire that they would kiss me.”  and as he stretches beneath the advancing women “in an agony of delightful anticipation,” his position suggests a sex act  Harker is confronting another creature equally terrifying to Victorian England: an overtly sexual woman (danger to male intellect, morality, and rationality)  Harker is visited by the three female vampires, who dance seductively and their appearance in the room where Harker is sleeping is undeniably sexual, as Harker’s description suggests  He notes “the ruby of their voluptuous lips” and feels “a wicked, burning desire that they would kiss me.”  and as he stretches beneath the advancing women “in an agony of delightful anticipation,” his position suggests a sex act  Harker is confronting another creature equally terrifying to Victorian England: an overtly sexual woman (danger to male intellect, morality, and rationality)    Chapter 4 Harker wakes up in his own bed the next day, unsure whether the previous night’s experience was a dream or reality   Dracula asks Harker write three letters to his fiancée and employer, and to date them June 12, 19, and 29, even though it is only May 19   Harker wakes up in his own bed the next day, unsure whether the previous night’s experience was a dream or reality   Dracula asks Harker write three letters to his fiancée and employer, and to date them June 12, 19, and 29, even though it is only May 19     Attempt at Escape Meanwhile, a party of Gypsies has come to the castle, and Harker, hoping for a chance to escape, resolves to ask them to send a letter to Mina  Harker passes his secret correspondence to a Gypsy through the bars of his window but later Dracula appears with the letter in hand, angry that Harker has betrayed him  Meanwhile, a party of Gypsies has come to the castle, and Harker, hoping for a chance to escape, resolves to ask them to send a letter to Mina  Harker passes his secret correspondence to a Gypsy through the bars of his window but later Dracula appears with the letter in hand, angry that Harker has betrayed him    A prisoner Several weeks pass and as mid-June approaches, and Harker remains a prisoner   More Gypsies arrive at the castle, and Harker sees them unloading large wooden boxes from a wagon   Dracula also has a bag very similar to the one earlier devoured by the three terrible women, which convinces Harker that his host is using the disguise to commit horrible acts (which is confirmed later by a woman crying at the gate that her child is gone)  Harker finds fifty boxes of earth in a secret passage. He opens several of the boxes and discovers the count in one of them, either dead or asleep   Several weeks pass and as mid-June approaches, and Harker remains a prisoner   More Gypsies arrive at the castle, and Harker sees them unloading large wooden boxes from a wagon   Dracula also has a bag very similar to the one earlier devoured by the three terrible women, which convinces Harker that his host is using the disguise to commit horrible acts (which is confirmed later by a woman crying at the gate that her child is gone)  Harker finds fifty boxes of earth in a secret passage. He opens several of the boxes and discovers the count in one of them, either dead or asleep     The Wolf as ‘Evil’ On June 29, Dracula promises Harker that he can leave the next day, but Harker requests to leave immediately  Though his host agrees and opens the front door, Harker’s departure is impeded by a waiting pack of wolves   The three vampire women re-appear and Harker prays  He later finds Dracula is asleep as before, but looks younger and well-rested  Harker notices blood trickling down from the corners of his mouth so takes up a shovel and strikes the count with the intent to kill him but it inflicts no harm (supernatural evil)  On June 29, Dracula promises Harker that he can leave the next day, but Harker requests to leave immediately  Though his host agrees and opens the front door, Harker’s departure is impeded by a waiting pack of wolves   The three vampire women re-appear and Harker prays  He later finds Dracula is asleep as before, but looks younger and well-rested  Harker notices blood trickling down from the corners of his mouth so takes up a shovel and strikes the count with the intent to kill him but it inflicts no harm (supernatural evil)    Analysis Dracula’s apparent consumption of blood and occupation of the coffin confirms Harker’s suspicions that Dracula possesses some type of supernatural power that is very dangerous  Dracula’s ability to resist or repel physical harm is also concerning to Harker because this seems to be his only option to depart from the castle  Dracula’s apparent consumption of blood and occupation of the coffin confirms Harker’s suspicions that Dracula possesses some type of supernatural power that is very dangerous  Dracula’s ability to resist or repel physical harm is also concerning to Harker because this seems to be his only option to depart from the castle    Chapter 5 This chapter consists of several letters and a diary entry – Mina Murray and her friend Lucy exchange letters about their respective romances   Mina is excited about her fiancée Harker’s impending return and Lucy describes various marriage proposals she has received from several suitors – important detail to remember for later  Dr. Seward is also introduced (Lucy rejected his proposal) and he describes his work at the asylum with a new patient named Renfield  This chapter consists of several letters and a diary entry – Mina Murray and her friend Lucy exchange letters about their respective romances   Mina is excited about her fiancée Harker’s impending return and Lucy describes various marriage proposals she has received from several suitors – important detail to remember for later  Dr. Seward is also introduced (Lucy rejected his proposal) and he describes his work at the asylum with a new patient named Renfield    Analysis Lucy and Mina are contrasted with the 3 vampire sisters in Transylvania as idealized figures of femininity  Lucy and Mina represent purity and goodness, while the sisters in Dracula’s castle represent corruption, danger, sex, and evil   BUT: Lucy writes: “Why can’t they let a girl marry three men, or as many as want her, and save all this trouble?” Though Lucy immediately condemns her own words as “heresy,” her apology does not negate her desire to experience life beyond conventional morality   Lucy and Mina are contrasted with the 3 vampire sisters in Transylvania as idealized figures of femininity  Lucy and Mina represent purity and goodness, while the sisters in Dracula’s castle represent corruption, danger, sex, and evil   BUT: Lucy writes: “Why can’t they let a girl marry three men, or as many as want her, and save all this trouble?” Though Lucy immediately condemns her own words as “heresy,” her apology does not negate her desire to experience life beyond conventional morality     Chapter 6 In her journal, Mina describes her visit with Lucy and a ruined abbey that is reputed to be haunted (reference to empty graves by a local man that foreshadows strangeness)  The Narrative then switches to Dr. Seward, who continues to report the curious case of his patient Renfield in his diary and the patient has an odd habit of eating living creatures (he desires to absorb as many lives as he can!)  Mina’s sadness turns to fear over her missing fiancé and over Lucy, who has begun to sleepwalk during the night (she also sees a strange ship in the distance)  In her journal, Mina describes her visit with Lucy and a ruined abbey that is reputed to be haunted (reference to empty graves by a local man that foreshadows strangeness)  The Narrative then switches to Dr. Seward, who continues to report the curious case of his patient Renfield in his diary and the patient has an odd habit of eating living creatures (he desires to absorb as many lives as he can!)  Mina’s sadness turns to fear over her missing fiancé and over Lucy, who has begun to sleepwalk during the night (she also sees a strange ship in the distance)    Analysis Renfield’s consumption of flies, spiders, and sparrows takes place because he believes that their lives are transferred into his own, providing him with strength and vitality   His behaviour also mirrors Dracula’s at this point – the consumption of living entities to attain strength and life force  Renfield’s consumption of flies, spiders, and sparrows takes place because he believes that their lives are transferred into his own, providing him with strength and vitality   His behaviour also mirrors Dracula’s at this point – the consumption of living entities to attain strength and life force    Chapter 7 The strange ship washes ashore during a storm – the crew is missing and the captain is dead (clutching a crucifix!)   The only cargo was a collection of wooden boxes that were delivered to a lawyer’s office   A large dog (wolf-like) jumps from the cargo hold and runs off into the countryside  The strange ship washes ashore during a storm – the crew is missing and the captain is dead (clutching a crucifix!)   The only cargo was a collection of wooden boxes that were delivered to a lawyer’s office   A large dog (wolf-like) jumps from the cargo hold and runs off into the countryside    Captain’s Log Selections from the captain’s log of the Demeter follow, describing the ship’s voyage to England from the Russian port of Varna – it is important to note that the point of departure is again from the “east”, which further serves to create that Other or sense of exoticism that we saw Harker feel in Transylvania   The trip starts off well, but ten days into the voyage, a crewmember is found missing. Soon thereafter, another sailor spots a tall, thin man who is not like any of the crew   They become fearful and continue to disappear one by one and as they approach the harbour, it becomes too foggy to see and the captain resolves to fight for his ship and destroy this monster  Selections from the captain’s log of the Demeter follow, describing the ship’s voyage to England from the Russian port of Varna – it is important to note that the point of departure is again from the “east”, which further serves to create that Other or sense of exoticism that we saw Harker feel in Transylvania   The trip starts off well, but ten days into the voyage, a crewmember is found missing. Soon thereafter, another sailor spots a tall, thin man who is not like any of the crew   They become fearful and continue to disappear one by one and as they approach the harbour, it becomes too foggy to see and the captain resolves to fight for his ship and destroy this monster    Back to Mina Mina describes the night of the dreaded storm, her fears for Jonathan, and her concern for Lucy, who continues to sleepwalk   On the day of the sea captain’s funeral, Mina reports that Lucy is increasingly restless and Mina thinks that the reason for this is because of Mr. Swales’ death (broken neck and look of horror)  Mina describes the night of the dreaded storm, her fears for Jonathan, and her concern for Lucy, who continues to sleepwalk   On the day of the sea captain’s funeral, Mina reports that Lucy is increasingly restless and Mina thinks that the reason for this is because of Mr. Swales’ death (broken neck and look of horror)    Analysis There is a clear link here between the monster on the ship and Dracula as well as the cargo on the ship  Swales predicted his own death and it actually happens, which causes Lucy’s sleepwalking symptoms to worsen – link?  There is a clear link here between the monster on the ship and Dracula as well as the cargo on the ship  Swales predicted his own death and it actually happens, which causes Lucy’s sleepwalking symptoms to worsen – link? 

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