reserch as the example was uploaded pdf

STUCK with your assignment? When is it due? Hire our professional essay experts who are available online 24/7 for an essay paper written to a high standard at a reasonable price.


Order a Similar Paper Order a Different Paper
reserch as the example was uploaded pdf

reserch as the example was uploaded pdf
Research and Publication Office 1 ENGLISH LANGUAGE ORAL COMMUNICATION NEEDS AT THE WORKPLACE: FEEDBACK FROM AMAIUB STUDENT TRAINEES Danilo A. Tabalan , Ph.D. AMA International University -Bahrain Center for General Education Department of Social Sciences Research Submission – Chapters 1 – 5 3rd Trimester A.Y. 2015 -201 6 Research and Publication Office 2 Abstract Engineers, computer analysts and business personnel are in -demand professions in Bahrain. However, English as the universal language or lingua franca in both multinational and many local companies in Bahrain has been a necessity . The quantitative research was undertaken to report an investigation on the English language oral communication needs at the workplace with the feedba cks from AMAIUB student trainees. Researchers reported that many employees encounter problems in conversing and communicating well in English and often cannot speak fluent English in meetings, public speaking and oral presentations. The findings of the st udy emphasized the necessity to equip the graduates with oral communication skills and confidence to ensure that they can work and deliver effectively at the workplace. The results had shown that communication problems at the workplace were attributed to l ow proficiency in the English language and the problems experienced by the workers at the workplace were also true and common to the student trainees in practice. Hence, schools and universities should have a very close and tight monitoring on the needs an d pro ble ms of the companies to be integrated in their programme and bridge the skill gap between what the industries expect and what the universities offer for the students. Keywords: communication needs, workplace, feedback Chapter 1 1. Introduction ” The English language plays an important role among people communicating in businesses and higher institutions in Bahrain. To this effect, Bahrain focused on producing a generation able to relate in varied social and professional perspectives. Com munication skills in management, if efficient, would show a clear vision of success [1]. Clagett cited that oral communication skills is the most significant stage in the English language which everybody should have to ensure potential employees and worker s in the workplace. The concept brought forth increased employment to most companies and making higher institutions in Bahrain realize the need of improving oral communication skills of their students [2]. Research and Publication Office 3 Good communication skills is the basic and advant ageous need in the workplace while tracking the road to success. According to Stivers, to carry out the tasks efficiently at the workplace, the managers should have good oral communication skills [3]. The study of Kasim and Ali revealed that 71 -80 percent of their respondents reported the significance of the oral communication skills in multinational companies. The communication skills were ranked as follows; telephone conversation, informal work related discussions, meetings, giving oral presentations, exp laining and demonstrating to subordinates and other colleagues [4]. Institutions of higher learning in Bahrain are continuously searching for creative and proficient managers in various disciplines to meet the needs of the flock of opportunities in differe nt situations. To produce quality graduates a ble to communicate effectively at the workplace is one of the goals in the higher institutions of Bahrain[5]. According to Stevens, having good oral communication skills in English is a good qualification for a good job. On the other hand, low proficiency in the language is a difficult employment factor [6]. He then mentioned that students with poor communication skills in the English language could hardly be employed because of the expectations of the employers . The skill in oral communication of the English language is to deliver varied communicative tasks like presentations, meetings and negotiations. For Blair and Jeanson, being proficient in the English language would be valuable in solving problems existing in the workplace [7]. Contrary to Blair and Jeanson, Smith mentioned that though there formal and professional trainings, the gaps remained expected in the workplace. There were significant gaps between what the industries expected and what the universiti es offered to the students [8]. ” With all the citations, this research was made to report on an investigation into the English language oral Research and Publication Office 4 communication needs of engineering, computer science and business undergraduates at the workplace. 1.2. Statement of th e Problem General: This study was a report on an investigation into the oral communication needs of engineering, computer studies and business undergraduates at the workplace. Specif ic: This study specifically aimed the following: 1. To identify the importance of the communications skills at the workplace. 2. To determine the importance of different activities in English language. 3. To determine the problems encountered during the practical training 4. To investigate the overall e mphasis on oral communication skills that should be given in future English language courses for engineering, computer studies and business sectors. 1.3. Significance of the Study “As a study , international companies will be benefited through the results of the research. They could have this study used as basis of the improvement of their companies especially in the workplace where they could build a culture of trust and honesty despite the div ersity. Managers Research and Publication Office 5 and supervisors could learn from the findings and adapt the recommendation for implementation for the company to be more productive and competitive in the global arena of business. With the development of the manpower in the workplace, the good communication would lead to a peaceful working atmosphere and more productive working employees. As a result, this would certainly be benefiting both the clients and the company; for the clients, the quality of the products, and for the company, the flock of the clients and the accelerating profit. The educational institutions could have their curriculum enhanced and develop more effective programmes for the oral communication skills through the English communication skill courses. This will be very significant in preparing and making the students ready to a long life learning and to undergo training for a more competitive and complex world after graduation. The society will be benefited too by the current research being undertaken. The government could encourage business firms to be conscious of their workplaces where everybody could change and be changed. The workplace is the reason of the companies for having quality servic e and quality production. ” 1.4. Definition of Terms Communication. Communication is a process where two people or more than two people communicate with each other through speaking, writing etc. Oral Communication. Verbal communication refers to the use of sounds and language to relay a message. Workplace. Workplace is a place where people work, such as an office or a factory. Research and Publication Office 6 Chapter 2 2. Review of Related Literature “Nowadays, employers prefer more of employees with written communication skills in the workplace. They were tested by checking the ability of the employees to follow oral directions. More so, the employers also observe the thinking and ability of the employees solve and handle problems in group in critical situations and fund productive ideas that would be benefiting the industries. Workers of today should feel cool and relaxed when under pressure and adapt technology in a quick pace [10]. Many employers believe the relevance of “fitting in”. Day, a Penn Stage psychologist, stated that there are practical implications for fitting in: “If there are mismatches, productivity suffers.” To solve an existing problem, all members in a group should work effectively in the sol ution using their interpersonal communication skills to finish the task. Applicants and candidates for whatever positions they apply for will have to undergo varied tests and exams before they are employed [11, 12]. Simple conversational skills and abilit y to interview to get information are necessary skills too in the workplace. Workers should deliver and receive messages exactly and accurately. Misinformation of any matter would be affecting the productivity and credibility of the industry. The e mergence of innovative communication technologies, expanded team -based management and an increasingly diverse workforce has caused business and industry employers Research and Publication Office 7 to seek for multiple -skilled knowledge workers who need to deal with words, figures and data. Because of these changes, the employers expect oral communication skills among the workers. In this paper, the term oral communications refers to communicative events engaged in by business, engineering and computer student trainees in the workplace, suc h as telephone conversations, meetings, formal discussions, presentations, social interactions and interviews . The term skills of oral communication refers to the entire knowledge and ability that enables one to do something well and includes the following skills: listening skills, conversational skills, giving feedback, meeting skills, presentation skills, handling customer complaints, conflict resolution skills, negotiation skills, taking customers orders, training skills, interviewing skills, persuading skills and promoting ones’ own strengths and abilities [13]. In a survey conducted by Maes et.al (1997), oral communication skills have been identified as the most important skills in the workplace [1 4]. Their study conducted in the Greater Gulf Coast area, including the coastal areas of Mississippi, Alabama and the Florida panhandle, revealed that oral communication in English is the most important skill demanded by employers when it comes to recruiting new staff. In addition to being one of the most essential skills for employment, oral communication skills are vital to job success and promotion [15 , 16 ]. Huckins & Olsen (1984) are of the view that employees who do not demonstrate good oral communication skills are rarely given managerial respons ibility. Effective oral communication skills are vital to people who hold managerial positions because managers need to explain, listen to, persuade, guide, coach, encourage, facilitate and direct group members to meet the goals of individuals and their or ganizations [17 ]. Effective oral communication enables individuals to be Research and Publication Office 8 understood and helps create understanding between people and fosters good relationship among workers in any business context [18 ]. Chapter 3 3. Research Methodology Research Design This is a quant itative research based from English Language Oral Communication needs of student trainees from the ir perspective . Respondents of the Study The respondents of the study were the student trainees of AMA In ternational University Bahrain from the College of Engineering, College of Computer Studies, and College of Administrative and Financial Sciences, who had recently undergone their practical training at different multinational and local companies in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Research Instr ument This study adopt ed the questionnaire used by Universiti Teknologi Malaysia in their study of the student trainees on the oral communication skills in English which focused on matching the skills developed at the university with the need and demand of the Industry. A. “Impor tance of the oral communication skills at the workplace ” Research and Publication Office 9 Indicators Very Important Important Somewhat Important Not Important “Importance of the oral communication skills at the workplace in general perspective. ” “Importance of confidence during communications and presentations ” “Importance of oral communication to recruitment ” “Importance of oral communication to job success ” “Importance of oral communication to professional development ” B. “Importance of different activities in English language ” Indicators Very Important Important Somewhat Important Not Important “Discussing projects, proposalsI plans, designs, etc ” “Reporting problems ” “Making formal oral presentations on projects, proposals, plansI designs, etc ” “Making and arguing for an issue before superiors or colleagues ” “Giving face -to-face instructions to subordinates ” Research and Publication Office 10 “Speaking on the telephone with colleagues about job related matters ” “Speaking on the telephone with clients about job related matters ” “Establishing social relationships with colleagues (including subordinates and superior) ” “Establishing social relationships with clients ” “Providing training through discussions, workshops, etc ” C. “Problems Encountered in Oral Communication Skills ” Indicators Always Frequently Sometimes Seldom Never “Arguing persuasively ” “Explaining logically ” “Speaking fluently ” “Supporting opinions ” “Asking for clarifications ” “Giving clarifications ” “Paraphrasing ” “Facilitating discussions/negotiations ” “Organizing ideas during oral presentations ” “Lack of confidence ” a. “Overall Emphasis on Oral Communication Skills for Future Trainees ” Indicators Strong Minor “Oral presentation skills ” “Discussion skills ” “Negotiation skills ” Research and Publication Office 11 “Briefing skills ” “Meetings ” “Telephone skills ” “Conversation skills ” “Pronunciations ” “Oral presentation ” “Confidence ” Gathering Procedure The questionnaire was distributed to the student trainees of AMA International Universit y Bahrain from the College of Engineering, College of Computer Studies, and College of Administrative and Financial Sciences, who had recently undergone their practical training at different multinational an d local companies in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Statistical Treatment of Data The questionnaire was analyzed quantitatively for frequency scores and percentages to obtain the information on the English Language Oral Communication needs of student trainees from their perspective. Chapter 4 4. Results and Discussions 1. To identify the importance of the communications skills at the workplace. Research and Publication Office 12 Fig. 1 Figure 1 presents the graph on the Importance of Oral Communication Skills at the workplace. It could be seen from th e graph that majority of the CCS student trainees considered English oral communication skills at the workplace very important. Of the very important rating, the students ranked the importance of oral communication to professional development first and the importance of oral communication to recruitment last. In the same manner, the students also considered importance of oral communication to recruitment only important. This simply implies 31 6 12 2 8 2 32 5 11 3 8 2 28 9 11 3 7 3 30 7 10 4 8 2 26 11 10 4 9 1 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Very Important Important Very Important Important Very Important Important CAFS COE CCS Importance of oral communication to professional development Importance of oral communication to job success Importance of oral communication to recruitment Importance of confidence during communications and presentations Importance of the oral communication skills at the workplace in general perspective Importance of the Oral Communication Skills at the Workplace Research and Publication Office 13 that the use of oral communication to professional development was m ore important and more needed than the other indicators mentioned in Figure 1. On the other hand, viewing the same Figure 1, the majority of the COE student trainees similarly perceived the English oral communication skills at the workplace very important. But unlike the CCS, the COE students perceived the importance of the oral communication skills at the workplace in general perspective in rank one (1) while indicators 1 and 2 the last rank. Indicators 1 and 2 were also considered only important. This imp lies that oral communication at the workplace has equal importance on the utilization and the development of all the indicators given in Figure 1. Obviously, the graph clearly shows that majority of the CAFS student trainees had also shown consistent respo nse on the importance of oral communication skills at the workplace as the other two colleges, that is, very important. The CAFS students ranked the importance of confidence during communications and presentations first and the importance of oral communica tion to professional development last. To some, importance of communication to professional development was considered only important. This could imply that confidence during communications and presentations is the most important indicator in creating good impression and trust from among the fellow workers at workplace. 2. To determine the i mportance of different activities in English language . Research and Publication Office 14 Fig. 2 (CAFS student trainees) Figure 2 presents the graph of the CAFS ’ perception on the Importance of Different Activities in English Language. The graph shows that, of the ten (10) indicators given, 1 and 5 got 23 students of CAFS who considered the indicators very important whi le 21 students did consider also indicators 2 and 10 very important. Of the same indicators, the 8th was considered by most of the students (23) to only important and the 9th indicator to only somewhat important for some 12 students. Generally, the figures in the graph reveal that each respondent has his/her own choice of which is very important, important and somewhat important indicators. This implies that the differences of choice among the respondents are clear manifestations of diversity and probable conflicts to emerge among employees in the workplace. The employer should design a program or an activity that could possibly resolve the would be existing issue on individu al differences. Importance of Different Activities in English Language 0 5 10 15 20 25 Discussing projects, proposals, Reporting problems Making formal oral presentations Making and arguing for an issue before Giving face-to- face instructions to Speaking on the telephone with Speaking on the telephone with clients on Establishing social relationships Establishing social relationships Providing training through Very Im portant Im portant Som ewhat Im portant Research and Publication Office 15 Fig. 3 (COE student trainees) Figure 3 presents the graph of the COE’s perception on the Importance of Different Activities in English Language. It could be glean ed from the graph that a number of engineering students seem to have similar choices of indicators which they considered very important. They were 1, 2 and 3 indicators. Except for one, the 10 th indicator was considered to have received the most number of engineering students who evaluated it very important but also got few (3) who considered it only somewhat important. For half of the students, indicator 9, establishing social relationship with clients, is something they considered only important, though 6 students said that speaking on the telephone with colleagues about job related matters is also important. The result implies that providing trainings through discussions and workshops; discussing projects, proposals, plans, designs, etc; reporting problem s; and making formal oral presentations on projects, proposals, Importance of Different Activities in English Language 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Discussing projects, proposals, Reporting problems Making formal oral presentations Making and arguing for an issue before Giving face-to- face instructions to Speaking on the telephone with Speaking on the telephone with clients on Establishing social relationships Establishing social relationships Providing training through Very Im portant Im portant Som ewhat Im portant Research and Publication Office 16 plans, designs and more are the activities the respondents believed to be very important and effective in the English language considering the nature of the people in the workplace. Fig. 4 (CCS student trainees) Figure 4 presents the graph of the CCS’ perception on the Importance of Different Activities in English Language. The graph vividly show that majority o f the computer science students perceived the second indicator, reporting problems, to be very important, while a group of 6 students have indicators first, fourth and tenth the ones very important and another group of 5 who said 3rd, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th an d 9th to be very important indicators. Five (5) out of ten (10) students on the other hand had perceived 3rd, 6 th, 7 th, 8 th and 9th indicators as only important and only one (1) considered indicators 4th and 5th to be somewhat important. This is a clear in dication that all Importance of Different Activities in English Language 0 2 4 6 8 10 Discussing projects, proposals, Reporting problems Making formal oral presentations Making and arguing for an issue before Giving face-to- face instructions to Speaking on the telephone with Speaking on the telephone with clients on Establishing social relationships Establishing social relationships Providing training through Very Im portant Im portant Som ewhat Im portant Research and Publication Office 17 problems in the workplace should immediately be settled by reporting them upon their existence. The closeness of the difference in the number of students who perceived the indicators very important also implies that all the indicators see m to have equal importance and must be attended to by the employer. 3. To determine the problems encountered during the practical training Table 1. Problems Encountered in Oral Communication Skills Indicators CAFS (37) COE (14) CCS (10) A % F % S % A % F % S % A % F % S % Arguing persuasively 54.1 29.7 16.2 21.4 42.9 35.7 40 30 30 Explaining logically 56.8 32.4 10.8 14.3 57.1 28.6 30 50 20 Speaking fluently 70.3 24.3 5.4 21.4 50.0 28.6 10 70 20 Supporting opinions 45.9 48.6 5.4 21.4 35.7 42.9 40 50 10 Asking for clarifications 54.1 27.0 18.9 21.4 42.9 35.7 40 30 30 Giving clarifications 48.6 24.3 27.0 28.6 28.6 42.9 20 70 10 Paraphrasing 45.9 32.4 21.6 28.6 28.6 42.9 20 30 50 Facilitating discussions/negotiations 54.1 29.7 16.2 14.3 42.9 42.9 10 40 50 Organizing ideas during oral presentations 51.4 21.6 27.0 21.4 35.7 42.9 30 40 30 Lack of confidence 48.6 27.0 24.3 57.1 21.4 21.4 80 10 10 Legend: A – always F – frequently S – sometimes Table 1 presents the Problems Encountered in Oral Communication Skills. The table shows the 10 indicators considered to be the problems encountered in oral communication skills while the students are in the practical training. It could be observed that the 3rd indicator, speaking fluently was always the problem encountered in the workplace as perceived by the CAFS students while frequently they encounter indicator 4 to be the problem and sometimes the 6th and 9th indicators were also considered the problems encountered by the respondents. For the perception of the CAFS, this is an implication that in the workplace, hardly Research and Publication Office 18 they had workers who really spoke English fluently though supporting opinions, giving clarifications and org anizing ideas during presentations were frequently and sometimes observed. From the same table 1, the COE students perceived the 10 th indicator, lack of confidence, as always seen to be the problem and with the highest percentage rating of 57.1. on the ot her hand, they observed that explaining logically, with the same percentage rating of 57.1, as frequently the problem also encountered in the workplace. Sometimes, the students of COE had also considered indicators 4, 6, 7, 8, and 9 to be the problems they also encountered while in the training. This is an indication that the workers most of the time or always did not have confidence, a factor that would affect their job and the production of the company. This factor could also be associated to the failure of getting instructions if frequently things cannot be explained logically. Similar to the perception of the COE, the students of CCS gave a percentage rating 80 to the 10 th indicator, lack of confidence, which seemed to be always the problem encountered by the employees at the workplace while the students considered speaking fluently, the 3 rd indicator, as only frequently to be the problem in the practicum training. It only implies that all the respondents had common problems and common needs in the workp lace and while in the training. Generally, all the indicators mentioned under the problems encountered were experienced and observed by every student trainee while in the workplace. Their responses only differ in how each and every one of them perceived a nd experienced things in daily varied situations. Research and Publication Office 19 4. To investigate the overall emphasis on oral communication skills that should be given in future English language courses for engineering, computer studies and business sectors. Table 2. Overall Emphasis on Oral Communication Skills for Future Trainees Indicators CAFS (37) COE (14) CCS (10) Strong (%) Minor (%) Strong (%) Minor (%) Strong (%) Minor (%) Oral presentation skills 89.2 10.8 85.7 14.3 90 10 Discussion skills 67.6 32.4 85.7 14.3 80 20 Negotiation skills 83.8 16.2 71.4 28.6 60 40 Briefing skills 62.2 37.8 71.4 28.6 60 40 Meetings 78.4 21.6 78.6 21.4 70 30 Telephone skills 56.8 43.2 71.4 28.6 80 20 Conversation skills 70.3 29.7 78.6 21.4 90 10 Pronunciations 67.6 32.4 71.4 28.6 90 10 Oral presentation 73.0 27.0 85.7 14.3 80 20 Confidence 78.4 21.6 92.9 7.1 90 10 Table 2 presents the Overall Emphasis on Oral Communication Skills for Future Trainees The above table reveals that the CAFS students had perceived the oral presentation skills, negotiation skills and meetings and confidence with strong emphasis and with the ratings of 89.2%, 83.8% and 78.4% respectively while telephone skills, briefing skills, discussion and pronunciations were considered only with minor emphasis on the percentages of 43.2, 37.8, and 32.4. This implies that there is good practice on exercising the oral presentation skills, negotiation skills, meetings and confidence while the students are in their practicum training. The COE had exhibite d strong emphasis on Confidence, oral presentation and discussion skills with the ratings of 92.9% and 85.7% respectively while negotiation skills, briefing skills, telephone skills and pronunciation with minor emphasis only as shown by their ratings of 28 .6%. This indicates that confidence in each of the worker in the workplace was strongly observed and Research and Publication Office 20 was very influential among many. Oral presentation skills and discussion skills were somehow the outcomes of the strong confidence of the presenters. In t he case of the CCS, the students gave a strong perception on oral presentation skills, conversation skills, pronunciations and confidence with the percentage rating of 90% while 40% rating was given to indicators negotiation skills and briefing skills resp ectively. It could be seen that there were similarities in the indicators that were perceived with strong emphasis. This simply implies that the CCS students could have felt to be more relaxed and comfortable and confident in the oral presentation skills, conversation skills and pronunciations in the workplace during their practicum training. The overall emphasis on oral presentation and confidences were generally the most perceived to have strong emphasis on oral communication skills for the future traine es. Chapter 5 5. Conclusions and Recommendations 5.1 Conclusions From the results and discussions of the study, the following conclusions were drawn according to the specific objectives posed. Research and Publication Office 21 1. To identify the importance of the communications skills at the workplace. The CSS students perceived oral communication to professional development very important and importance of oral communication to recruitment only important while the COE students considered oral communica tion skills at the workplace in general perspective the one very important and the importance of oral communication skills at the workplace in general perspective and the importance of confidence during communications and presentations only important. For the CAFS, confidence during communications and presentations was the considered very important and the importance of oral communication to professional development only important. 2. To determine the i mportance of different activities in English langu age. In determining the importance of different activities, the CAFS perceived discussing projects, proposals, plans, designs, etc and giving face -to-face instructions to subordinates very important; while establishing social relationships with colleague s was considered only important and establishing social relationships with clients somewhat important. The COE evaluated the providing training through discussions and workshops very important and for half of the students, establishing social relationships with the clients only important. For the CCS, reporting problems was perceived very important and making formal oral presentations on projects, proposals, plans, designs, etc, speaking on the telephone with colleagues about job related matters, speaking on the telephone with clients about job related matters, establishing social Research and Publication Office 22 relationships with colleagues, and establishing social relationships with clients were the indicators considered only important. 3. To determine the problems encountered duri ng the practical training Among the problems, speaking fluently was perceived always the problem encountered in the workplace for the CAFS and frequently, supporting opinions was also a problem. Sometimes, giving clarifications and organizing ideas during oral presentations were problems too. The COE students perceived lack of confidence always the problem; explaining logically as the frequent problem and sometimes supporting opinions, giving clarifications, paraphrasing, facilitating discussions and organ izing ideas during oral presentations were also problems. Similar to the COE, the CCS students perceived lack of confidence also as always the problem; speaking fluently as the frequent problem. 4. To investigate the overall emphasis on oral communication skills that should be given in future English language courses for engineering, computer studies and business sectors. CAFS students perceived oral presentation skills, negotiation skills and meetings and confidence with strong emphasis on oral communication skills for future trainees while telephone skills, briefing skills, discussion and pronunciations with minor emphasis only. The COE students perceived with strong emphasis the confidence and the oral presentation and discussion skills while only minor emphasis on negotiation skills, briefing skills, telephone skills Research and Publication Office 23 and pronunciation. CCS students considered oral presentation skills, conversation skills, pronunciations and confidence with strong emphasis and minor emphasis on negotiation and briefing skills. 5.2. Recommendations The following recommendations were drawn from the conclusions presented. 1. The company or the employers should design a program for professional development where oral communicatio n skills and developing confidence need to be strengthened and the focus. 2. There should be regular trainings, seminars and workshops on oral communication, technical writing and public speaking as part of the program to get the desired output from the workers . 3. Affiliate the company to schools and universities in terms of practicum and on the job training. 4. Create activities where everyone will be involved like “team building” to lessen the differences because of diversity and to develop trust, c onfidence and good social relationship in the community. 5. Regular verbal communication with the employees is necessary. 6. Schools and universities should have a very close and tight monitoring on the needs and problems of the companies to be integrated in their program and bridge the skill gap between the expectations of the industries and what the universities offer for the students . References [1] Wilson, J. P. Human resource development: Learning and training for individuals and organizations (2nd ed.).London: Kogan Page; 2005. [2] Clagett, C. A. Largo,MD: Prince of Institutional Research and Analysis. Clark; 1997. [3 ] Stivers, G., J. Campbell, and Hermanson, H., An Assessment Program for Accounting: Design, Implementation, and Reflection, Issues in Accounting Education; 2000, 15, (4). [4 ] Kassim, H., and Ali, F. English communicative events and skills needed at the workplace: feedback from the industry. English for Specific Purposes; 2 010, 29, 168 -182. Research and Publication Office 24 [5 ] Rajadurai, J. The faces and facets of English in Malaysia. English Today; 2004, 20 (4), 54 -58. [6 ] Stevens, B. What Communication Skills Do Employers Want? Silicon Valley Recruiters Respond. Journal of Em ployment Counseling; 2005, 42(1). [7 ] Blair, D., Jeanson, S. Workplace Oral Communication Curriculum. Winnipeg, MB: Workplace Education Manitoba Steering Committee, Manitoba Department of Education and Training, Continuing Education Division; 1995 [8 ] Smith, M. C. What will be the demands of litera cy in the workplace in the next millennium? Reading Research Quartery; 2000, 35(3) :378 -380. [9 ] Bragg, Debra D., and James D. Layton. “Tech Prep Implementation in the United States: The Once and Future Roles of Community Colleges .” Community College Review 22.4 (1995): 316. [10 ]Martin -Young, N. (1995). CEI Fall Conference. CEI Newsletter . Octoberr 23, 1995. [1 1]”Myers -Briggs Type Indicator.” Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology . Ed. Raymond J. Corsini. New York: Wiley, 1987. [12 ] Martin -Young, N. (1995). CEI Fall Conference. CEI Newsletter . Octoberr 23, 1995. [1 3] Maes, J., Weldy, T. & Icenogle, M. 1997. A managerial perspective: oral communication co mpetency is most important for business students in the workplace. The Journal of Business Communication ,34: 67 -80. [1 4] Maes, J., Weldy, T. & Icenogle, M. 1997. A managerial perspective: oral communication competency is most important for business students in the workplace. The Journal of Business Communication ,34: 67 -80. Retrieve from: http://libresources.amaiu.edu.bh [1 5] Lee, F.T. 2003. Identifying essential learnin g skills in students Engineering education. http://www.survey.canterbury.ac.n2/herda03/pdfsref/Y111.pdf (Accessed 28 October 2003, 2:00pm) . Retrieve from: http://libresources.amaiu.edu.bh [1 6] Crosling, G. & Ward, I. 2001. Graduates, workplace oral communication and undergraduate curriculum. Retrieve from: http://libresources.amaiu.edu.bh [17 ] Huckins, J.C. & Olsen, L.A. 1984. The need for professionally oriented ESL instruction in the United States. TESOL Quarterly, 18 (2): 273 -294. Retrieve from: http://libresources.amaiu.edu.bh [18 ] DiSanza, J.R. & Legge, N.J. 2000. Business and Professional Communication: Plans, Research and Publication Office 25 Processes and Performance. USA: Allyn & Bacon . Retrieve from: http://libresources.amaiu.edu.bh

Writerbay.net

Everyone needs a little help with academic work from time to time. Hire the best essay writing professionals working for us today!

Get a 15% discount for your first order


Order a Similar Paper Order a Different Paper