The discussion assignment for this week includes a review of the Key Assignment outline that was completed by one of your classmates, as well as a substantial response to at least one other student. P

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The discussion assignment for this week includes a review of the Key Assignment outline that was completed by one of your classmates, as well as a substantial response to at least one other student.

Primary Task Response: Your first task is to post your own Key Assignment outline to the discussion area so that other students are able to review your plan. Attach your document to the main discussion post, and include any notes that you feel are appropriate. The purpose of this assignment is to help improve the quality of the Key Assignment draft that you will complete next week.

Respond to Another Student: Review at least 1 other student’s Key Assignment outline, and provide meaningful feedback. Refrain from general feedback, such as simply stating “good job.” Your feedback to other students is most helpful if you not only point out weak areas but also offer suggestions for improvement. The best feedback takes a three-stage approach to identify what was done well, weaknesses, and areas for improvement.

The discussion assignment for this week includes a review of the Key Assignment outline that was completed by one of your classmates, as well as a substantial response to at least one other student. P
15 Operating System and Network Upgrade Student Name Course Name and Number Computer Networking Project Name Network Communication Protocols Date 11/08/2021 Table of Contents I.Distributed Network Requirements Analysis 3 a.Introduction 3 b.Summary 3 II.Communication Protocols Analysis and Recommendations 5 a.Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol 6 b.Diameter Protocol 7 c.Hypertext Transfer Protocol 7 d.Recommendation and Applicability at AT&T 8 III.Network Traffic Analysis and Recommendations 9 IV.Network Design and Architecture 13 V.Future Needs Analysis and Recommendations 14 VI.References 15 Distributed Network Requirements Analysis Introduction Competition is one of the challenges that organizations continue to face as they run their day-to-day operations. To remain competitive in the market, an effective distribution network should be in place. This will help the organizations to effectively communicate messages through the various computers that act as nodes to reach the intended targets unaltered and at the right time. Distributed networks also allow the computers to work more efficiently by allowing dependency on one another. The objective of this paper will address the concepts of a distributed network by performing a requirements analysis to establish the need for a distributed network at AT & T. Summary The company selected for the project will be AT&T. two years ago, AT&T was the world’s largest telecommunications company in the world (Kumar, 2019). It is the largest company that provides mobile telephone services in the United States. AT&T is also known as being the best provider of fixed telephone services in the United States. recently, AT&T completed an acquisition of Verizon Wireless. As a result of the strategic move, AT&T acquired both Verizon Wireless, Alltel, and Unicell in the United States. To ensure that AT&T remains at the top of the business, it is important to upgrade the operating systems and the networks being used at AT&T to ensure effectiveness and better productivity. The company is large as it had 229,055 employees worldwide in 2020 with its headquarters in Dallas, Texas, in the United States (AT&T, 2021). The current CEO of the firm is John T. Stankey. The firm has embraced inclusivity and diversity. The benefits that AT&T would accrue from distributed networking will include increased efficiency, scalability, and increased reliability of the services provided by the telecommunications giant in the United States. Through distributed networking, the areas of functionality that AT&T could have improved include improving scalability, improving reliability, improving the efficiency of services rendered, automatic backup and recovery, as well as automated disaster recovery. Scalability – Increase the number of physical hosts to unlimited seamlessly Reliability – increase uptime and availability to 99.99 percent Efficiency – implement multi-processor cores to replace the single-processor cores used Automatic backup and recovery – backing up data regularly. Automatic disaster recovery – Retrieving backed-up data to ensure normal operations after security incidences. The connectivity requirements for the proposed network include opening UDP ports 1025 – 65535and adequate bandwidth. On the other hand, the security requirements for the proposed network include installing firewall and proxy rules to allow SSL traffic over port 443, installing regular system updates, using Linux operating system, and installing antivirus software. All the new infrastructure that will be added will be implemented in form of a virtualized environment using VMware & ESXi Hypervisors. The container environment will be implemented for more than 50 percent of the new virtualized environment. The other requirements that may affect the design and architecture of the network will include budget limitations, limitations imposed by using the existing network infrastructure, the existing operating systems, and lack of training needs to meet the standards required. Communication Protocols Analysis and Recommendations The communications that will be supported at AT&T with the proposed network will include tasks that require accuracy. There is a wide range of communication protocols that could be used at AT&T. the majority of the tasks that will be conducted at AT&T and its network will require the data being worked on to be accurate at all times. Mobile users will have to be identified correctly and authenticated before being allowed to access services from the network. Furthermore, the network parameter settings controlling how base stations behave and interact with the mobile users will have to be configured in the right manner to prevent miscommunications that would cause disastrous effects to the company. More users are shifting to the use of mobile devices to access the internet, Voice over IP, social media platforms, and video conferencing. Effective communication protocols will help AT&T communicate effectively in a more cost-effective and scalable manner as the firm expands and increases its network coverage. It will also allow AT&T to shift communications easily from Ethernet to wireless and back to Ethernet connections with ease. Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol The Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) offers a more reliable and connection-oriented mode for communication. According to Boyko, Varkentin, and Polyakova (2019), the TCP/IP protocol is a preferred option when an organization desires to transport important information like Call Detail Records (CDR). The billable information had to be sent securely to the billing department, roaming partners at both the local and international spheres, and the care team. Using the TCP/IP model, a header is attached to the data that is about to be transmitted with the right parameters such as the acknowledgment number, the sequence number, as well as a checksum. These parameters will help to accurately assemble the data at the receiving end while the data that may have been lost or corrupted during the transmission, upon confirmation using the checksum, will be retransmitted. This ensures both the reliability and accuracy of the data transmitted and received by the other entity. As a result, the TCP/IP model is thus the most effective communication protocol to be used at AT&T. Diameter Protocol Diameter is considered to be another important Authentication Authorization Accounting (AAA) protocol widely adopted and used across all Internet-Protocol (IP) networks and in the telecommunications network industry (Joshi & Mohapatra, 2019). It is considered to be an improvement of the RADIUS protocol. Diameter has helped to address some of the common limitations that existed with the implementation of the RADIUS protocol. For instance, Diameter has helped to overcome challenges in secured communications, scalability, fault-tolerance, node capabilities, reliability in transmission, clarity of the defined procedures, and load balancing. Based on the requirement analysis, Diameter could also be an effective communication protocol that could support the proposed network at AT&T. However, Diameter has architectural flaws that cannot be offset through blocking traffic or filtering (Joshi & Mohapatra, 2019). Hypertext Transfer Protocol The third communication protocol that could be implemented to support the proposed network based on the results of the requirements analysis at AT&T is the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). The HTTP is an application layer protocol that can be used to communicate data on the Web. The HTTP protocol can help the business effectively market itself on the web by increasing the visibility of the firm on the internet. It acts as a request-response protocol that allows the users to effectively interact with the web resources over a TCP protocol. Methods such as GET, POST, HEAD, and DELETE are used on the HTTP to perform various tasks. For example, GET can be used to access specific resources, POST is used to add content, HEAD is used to request specific resources without the body content, while DELETE helps to get rid of certain resources (Extrahop, 2021). However, HTTP does not offer a reliable exchange. Recommendation and Applicability at AT&T The recommended communications protocol will be TCP/IP protocol. Boyko, Varkentin, and Polyakova (2019) affirm that the TCP/IP model is an open protocol suite which makes it available for use by both individuals and companies. It is also highly scalable and thus could be expanded and condensed based on the growth of AT&T. The TCP/IP model is also highly interoperable which makes it available for cross-platform communications among heterogeneous networks. Furthermore, the TCP/IP model is highly reliable because packets that are corrupted, lost, or compromised in any way can be retransmitted. This could be verified using the accompanying checksum. The TCP/IP model is thus more appropriate for use at AT&T based on the business analysis requirements established. Network Traffic Analysis and Recommendations Effective network distribution is one of the essential requirements in AT&T. For AT&T to be able to cover all the 50 states in the United States and other countries globally, it requires to enhance some of its networking systems and connectivity equipment to reduce its competition with other countries. One of the most significant achievements of the company is opening UDP ports 1025 – 65535. Despite opening the UDP ports as an achievement, AT&T needs to upgrade its computers from traditional computers to modern ones to allow efficiency and reliability when processing requests. If the computers are upgraded, they will be unable to process the requests from the network ports on time. This might not be convenient to many customers, and they might end up moving to AT&T competitors (Urbanek, 2017) When focusing on the operating system of AT&T, the company is using Linux operating system, which is protected by the firewall with various proxy rules to allow SSL traffic and antivirus software. Using Linux operating systems, firewalls and antivirus software is essential in protecting the computers from the traffic of the work station, thus reducing the threats. Though firewalls are essential to the company, they might be a threat where they might block users from accessing various websites, which is an inconvenience to various customers. Due to the inconvenience, customers may migrate to the competitors of the company. On the other antivirus software might block some requests and make changes on the web pages, thus making it hard for customers to access the information they would like. The best antivirus program would be Kaspersky antivirus for Linux, which offers multi-layered protection to the computers in the workstation. Furthermore, with the efficiency of this software, it is possible to reduce all types of malware, thus protecting the workstation. On the other hand, firewall blocking can be reduced by allowing various support teams to monitor their requests, enhancing its efficiency of passing information. To facilitate efficiency in the network’s communication, AT&T has installed a Transmission Control Protocol that facilitates essential information like call detail records. With this communication strategy, customers can communicate without worrying about data loss as any parameters are lost through the communication. The biggest threat of this communication strategy is that these communication methods do not offer encryption unless AT&T protect the service by TLS to obtain a secure key of protecting the information of the connection. If the customers know there is no protection on their network, they are likely to migrate to the company’s competitors who protect their data. AT&T is leveraging from diameter protocol which facilitates Authentication Authorization Accounting. With this communication protocol, the company has been able to secure communications, enhance the scalability of the network, facilitate reliability in transmission, define various operating procedures and balance the workload of the network. This will allow the computers of the network to run for long and efficiently, thus reducing competition between the company’s customers. Diameter protocol can be enhanced by using software such as DSI Diameter Stack. This software facilitates high performance by enabling user applications to interface directly to LTE and IMS networks. AT&T is proposing Hypertext and Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which will be used for communication via the internet. This will be essential as it will help businesses promote their services by using the internet. With this communication protocol, AT&T users will be able to interact with the internet resources, thus relying on the network. Furthermore, this communication allows various functions such as GET, HEAD, DELETE, and POST. By the communication strategy carrying out all these functions, the users will be able to do various tasks via the web, thus facilitating efficiency. This communication protocol allows various tasks to be done efficiently. If an HTTP connection is well installed, it will attract more customers, thus reducing competition to other companies. (Urbanek, 2017) Inconclusively, the company is making a good proposal plan on what to implement to reduce customer competition, but there are various changes it has to consider before implementing the proposed plan on network distribution. Before installing the proposed network distribution plan, it has to ensure that the bandwidth is adequate and is compatible with the network services that AT&T wants to provide. Furthermore, to implement the proposal, the company needs to upgrade the computer from traditional to modern computers to handle the workload efficiently. Installing essential software such as Kaspersky will facilitate multiple layer protection, and the DSI diameter stack can facilitate efficiency to the computers, thus allowing them to process the requests on time. If the network is effective and reliable, customers will prefer using it over other networks, thus reducing the company’s competition. Network Design and Architecture Future Needs Analysis and Recommendations References AT&T (2021). AT&T’s Workforce Diversity. Retrieved from https://about.att.com/pages/diversity Boyko, A., Varkentin, V., & Polyakova, T. (2019). Advantages and Disadvantages of the Data Collection Method Using SNMP. In 2019 International Multi-Conference on Industrial Engineering and Modern Technologies (FarEastCon) (pp. 1-5). IEEE. Extrahop. (2021). Network protocol library. Retrieved from https://www.extrahop.com/resources/protocols/ Joshi, A., & Mohapatra, A. K. (2019). Security analysis of wireless authentication protocols. International Journal of Sensors Wireless Communications and Control, 9(2), 247-252. Kumar, B. R. (2019). AT&T–Time Warner Acquisition. In Wealth Creation in the World’s Largest Mergers and Acquisitions (pp. 121-129). Springer, Cham. Ordonez, C., Johnson, T., Srivastava, D., & Urbanek, S. (2017, August). A tool for statistical analysis on network big data. In 2017 28th International Workshop on Database and Expert Systems Applications (DEXA) (pp. 32-36). IEEE.

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