The purpose of this assignment is for you to practice, develop, and hone your dialogical skills. This discussion is not meant as a place for you to do processing. It is a public space to share you

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The purpose of this assignment is for you to practice, develop, and hone your dialogical skills.    This discussion is not meant as a place for you to do processing.  It is a public space to share your most well-crafted and theoretical thinking.  Your best writing is expected.  Our discussions are also not a place for you to express opinion; rather it is where you articulate well thought out and supported thinking.   You will save your internal thinking and processing for your journals writing.

Total 2 paragraph, one each answers the questions below.

Chapter 8 focuses on the impact of capitalism on intercultural communication. Drawing on the chapter and and other class activities please discuss one or all of these:

  • Provide a brief overview of the history of capitalism. How has the development of capitalism impacted U.S. culture?
  • In the context of globalization, capitalism is increasingly affecting countries with developing economies. Discuss the likely impact of the culture of capitalism on these cultures.
  • Why is an understanding of capitalism important for the study of culture and intercultural communication today?

Chapter 1Identify the six points of entry into intercultural praxis and explain how you can use them for more effective intercultural interactions and relationships.

The purpose of this assignment is for you to practice, develop, and hone your dialogical skills. This discussion is not meant as a place for you to do processing. It is a public space to share you
Sorrells, Intercultural Communication, Instructor Resources Chapter 1 Opening the Conversation: Studying Intercultural Communication Lecture Notes: Chapter Overview, Objectives and Outline Chapter Overview The first chapter, “Opening the Conversation,” invites readers to engage in a dynamic relationship with the content presented in the text and with the world around them. Students are encouraged to move from passive recipients to active participants in their learning process. The current context of globalization is a rapidly changing, deeply interdependent and increasingly inequitable world that requires skillful, informed and proactive intercultural communicators. To address the challenges and opportunities of intercultural communication today, three definitions of culture are introduced: 1.) the traditional anthropological definition where culture is viewed as shared meaning, 2.) the critical/cultural studies definition where culture is understood as a site of contested meaning, and 3.) the globalization definition where culture is seen as a resource that is bought, sold and capitalized upon for exploitation and empowerment. Each definition provides a different yet invaluable way of understanding culture in our complex age. Critical concepts such as positionality, standpoint theory, and ethnocentrism are introduced to understand how our worldviews, perceptions, attitudes and actions are influenced by relationship of power. To become more effective as intercultural communicators, thinkers, and actors in the global context, intercultural praxis—a set of skills and practices for critical, reflective thinking and acting—is outlined in this first chapter. The six interrelated points of entry in intercultural praxis are: Inquiry, Framing, Positioning, Dialogue, Reflection, and Action. The purpose of engaging in intercultural praxis is to raise awareness, increase critical analysis, and develop socially responsible action in regard to our intercultural interactions in the context of globalization. Chapter Objectives To invite and encourage students to move from passive recipients to active participants in becoming effective intercultural communicators. To introduce the challenges and opportunities of intercultural communication in the context of globalization. To provide three different definitions of culture, which are central for understanding intercultural communication in the global context. To understand how our social location and standpoint shape how we see, experience and understand the world differently. To introduce intercultural praxis—a process of critical reflection and action—to increase awareness, critical analysis and socially responsible action. Key Terms *indicated in bold and italicized letters below High culture/Low culture Intercultural praxis Popular culture Inquiry Culture as shared meaning Framing Symbols Positioning Culture as contested meaning Dialogue Hegemony Reflection Culture as resource Action Cultural identity Positionality Standpoint theory Ethnocentrism Introduction Globalization is changing the ways we engage in intercultural communication. Our lives are increasingly interconnected through technology and the global economy. At the same time, the gap between the haves and have-nots is widening. The book positions the study and practice of intercultural communication within the context of political, economic, and cultural globalization with an emphasis on the role of history, power, and global institutions. This chapter introduces the key concepts in intercultural communication. Definitions of Culture Historically, the word culture was closely linked to processes of colonization. High culture: Culture of the elite class, or ruling class who have power. To have culture means to be civilized and developed. Low culture: Culture of the working class. Popular Culture: Culture that belongs to the “masses,” much of which was previously considered low culture. Anthropologic Definition: Culture as a Site of Shared Meaning Edward T. Hall is considered one of the originators of the field of intercultural communication. In the 1950s, Hall developed training programs on culture and communication for diplomats going abroad on assignment. Hall’s applied approach, focusing on the micro-level of human interaction, established the foundation for the field of intercultural communication. Clifford Geertz emphasized the role of symbols in understanding culture. According to Geertz, culture is a web of symbols that people use to create meaning and order in their lives. From an anthropological perspective, culture is a system of shared meanings. Passed from generation to generation through symbols to allow people to communicate, maintain, and develop an approach and understanding of life. Culture allows us to make sense of, express and give meaning to our lives. Example: Different cultures give varying interpretations to a man in his late 20s who lives with his parents and siblings. Cultural Studies Definition: Culture as a Site of Contested Meaning Culture as an apparatus of power within a larger system of domination. Informed by Marxist theories of class struggle and exploitation. Culture as a site of contestation where meanings are constantly negotiated. Cultural studies is a transdisciplinary field of study that emerged in the post-WWII era in England as a challenge to the positivist approaches to the study of culture. Cultural studies aims to develop subjective approaches to the study of culture in everyday life It examines the broader historical and political context within which cultural practices are situated, and to attend to relations of power in understanding culture. Hegemony Domination through consent as defined by Antonio Gramsci, an Italian Marxist theorist. Dominance without the need for force or explicit forms of coercion. Operates when the goals, ideas, and interests of the ruling group or class are so thoroughly normalized, institutionalized and accepted that people consent to their own domination, subordination and exploitation. From a cultural studies perspective, meanings are not necessarily shared, stable, or determined. Meanings are constantly produced, challenged, and negotiated. Example: Media representations of non-dominant groups in the United States are negotiated and contested. Culture is a site of contestation where the social norms are negotiated. A cultural studies approach offers tools to analyze power relations, to understand the historical and political context of our intercultural relations, and to see how we can act or intervene critically and creatively in our everyday lives. Globalization Definition: Culture as a Resource Culture as embodied difference Arjun Appadurai (1996) suggests that we need to move away from thinking of culture as a thing, a substance or an object that is shared. The concept of culture as a coherent, stable entity privileges certain forms of sharing and agreement, and neglects the realities of inequality, difference, and those who are marginalized. Culture is not something that individuals or groups possess but rather a way of referring to dimensions of situated and embodied difference that express and mobilize group identities. Culture as a resource George Yúdice (2003) suggests that culture in the age of globalization has come to be understood as a resource. Culture is conceptualized, experienced, exploited, and mobilized as a resource. Culture is utilized as a resource to address and solve social problems like illiteracy, addiction, crime, and conflict. Culture is also used discursively, socially, and politically as a resource for collective and individual empowerment, agency and resistance. Example: Symbolic goods such as TV shows, movies, music and tourism, are a resource for economic growth in global trade. Mass culture industries in the U.S. are the major contributor to the Gross National Product (GNP). Example: African American urban culture has been appropriated, exploited, commodified, and yet operates as a potentially oppositional force. Example: How tourism in many parts of the world utilizes the resource of culture to attract foreign capital for development. Example: The Zapatista movement in Chiapas, Mexico that emerged in resistance to the oppressive and disenfranchising policies and practices of the NAFTA. Example: The ways that black youth in the favelas, poverty-stricken areas of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, use their funk music as a means to challenge racial discrimination and as a platform for activism. Textbox: Communicative Dimensions: Culture and Communication The textbox discusses the relationship between culture and communication based on three different definitions of culture. Studying Intercultural Communication: Key Concepts Cultural Identity: Our situated sense of self that is shaped by our cultural experience and social location. In recent years, many students find it highly challenging to articulate what their culture is. For students who come from the dominant culture, the response is often “I don’t really have a culture.” For those students from non-dominant groups, responses that point to their ethnic, racial, or religious group identification come more readily and yet, their replies are often accompanied by some uneasiness. Typically, people whose culture differs from the dominant group have a stronger sense of their culture and develop a clearer awareness of their culture. These responses reflect various definitions of culture. Their responses are also shaped by their cultural identities. Positionality One’s social location or position within an intersecting web of socially constructed hierarchical categories (i.e. race, class, gender, sexual orientation, religion, nationality and physical abilities). Positionality shapes different experiences, understanding, and knowledge of oneself and the world. Positionality is a relational concept. Shows how we are positioned in relation to others within these intersecting social categories. Shows how we are positioned in terms of power. The socially constructed categories of race, gender, class, sexuality, nationality, religion and ableness are hierarchical systems that often define and connote material and symbolic power. Standpoint Theory Standpoint: A place from which to view and make sense of the world around us. Our standpoint influences what we see and what we cannot, do not, or choose not to see. Feminist standpoint theory claims that the social groups to which we belong shape what we know and how we communicate. Based on the Marxist position that economically oppressed classes can access knowledge unavailable to the socially privileged and can generate distinctive accounts, particularly knowledge about social relations. G.W.F. Hegel suggested that while society in general may acknowledge the existence of slavery, the perception, experience, and knowledge of slavery is quite different for slaves as compared to masters. One’s position within social relations of power produces different standpoints from which to view, experience, act and construct knowledge about the world. People from oppressed or subordinated groups must understand both their own perspective and the perspective of those in power in order to survive. The standpoint of marginalized people or groups is unique and should be privileged as it allows for a fuller and more comprehensive view. Patricia Hill Collins’ (1986) notion of “outsiders within” points to the possibility of dual vision of marginalized people and groups. Standpoint theory offers a powerful lens through which to make sense of, address, and act upon issues and challenges in intercultural communication. It enables us to understand how: We may see, experience, and understand the world quite differently based on our different standpoints and positionalities. Knowledge about ourselves and others is situated and partial. Knowledge is always and inevitably connected to power. Oppositional standpoints can form challenging and contesting the status quo. Ethnocentrism The idea that one’s own group’s way of thinking, being, and acting in the world is superior to others. Derived from two Greek words, ethno, meaning group or nation, and, kentron, meaning center. Conceptualized by William Sumner (1906). Ethnocentrism leads to negative evaluations of others and can result in dehumanization, legitimization of prejudices, discrimination, conflict, and violence. Ethnocentrism has combined with power—material, institutional, and symbolic power—to justify colonization, imperialism, oppression, war, and ethnic cleaning. Can blind individuals, groups, and even nations to the benefits of broader points of view and perceptions. Often marked by an intensely inward-looking and often near-sighted view of the world. Negatively impacts intercultural communication on both interpersonal and global levels. Example: In a 2001 poll, 58 % of global opinion leaders considered U.S. policies to be a major cause of the September 11 attacks, compared to just 18 % of U.S. respondents. Ethnocentrism has no long-term benefits for effective or successful intercultural communication in the context of globalization. Textbox: Cultural Identity: Constructing Cultural Identity The textbox provides the definition of cultural identity Discusses how the notions of positionality, standpoint theory, and ethnocentrism are related to cultural identity and intercultural communication. Intercultural Praxis The purpose of engaging in intercultural praxis is: To raise our awareness. To increase our critical analysis. To develop our socially responsible action in regard to our intercultural interactions in the context of globalization. There are six points or ports of entry that direct us towards ways of thinking, reflecting and acting in relation to our intercultural experiences. Intercultural praxis allows us to attend to the complex, relational, interconnected and often ambiguous nature of our experiences. Inquiry Refers to a desire and willingness to know, to ask, to find out and to learn. Inquiry requires that we are willing to take risks, allow our own way of viewing and being in the world to be challenged and changed. Be willing to suspend judgments about others in order to see and interpret others and the world from different points of view. Framing The use of multiple frames of reference to understand intercultural communication. “Framing” indicates that our perspectives, our views on ourselves, others and the world around us are always and inevitably limited by frames. We see things through individual, cultural, national, and regional frames that necessarily include some things and exclude others. It is critical that we become aware of the frames of reference from which we view and experience the world. To be aware of both the local and global contexts that shape intercultural interactions. To zoom in and focus on the particular and very situated aspects of an interaction, event, or exchange. To zoom out to view the incident, event, or interaction from a broader frame. To be aware of our frames of reference. To develop our capacity to flexibly and consciously shift our perspectives between the particular dimensions and the broader, global dimensions. Positioning Refers to understanding how and where we are positioned in the world. Positioning allows us to acknowledge that we are positioned differently with both material and symbolic consequences. Our positionality may shift and change based on where you are and with whom you are communicating. To interrogate who can speak and who is silenced; whose language is spoken and whose language trivialized or denied; whose actions have the power to shape and impact others and whose actions are dismissed, unreported, and marginalized. To question whose knowledge is privileged, authorized and agreed upon as true and whose knowledge is deemed unworthy, “primitive,” or unnecessary. To examine the relationship between power and what we think of as “knowledge.” Our knowledge of the world is socially and historically constructed and produced in relation to power. Dialogue The word “dialogue” is derived from the Greek word “dialogos.” “Dia” means “through,” “between,” or “across.” “Logos” refers to “word” or “the meaning of the word” as well as “speech” or “thought.” Anthropologist Crapanzano (1990) suggests that “dialogue” necessarily entails both an oppositional as well as a transformative dimension. Given the differences in power and positionality in intercultural interactions, engagement in dialogue is necessarily a relationship of tension. Martin Buber suggests that dialogue is essential for building community and goes far beyond an exchange of messages. Dialogue requires a particular quality of communication that involves a connection among participants who are potentially changed by each other. I-Thou relationships, rather than I-It relationship. Regard for both self and other. Either/or thinking is challenged. The possibility of shared ground, new meaning and mutual understanding. Dialogue allows us to be cognizant of differences and invites us to stretch ourselves—to reach across—to imagine, experience, and creatively engage with others. Reflection Reflection is the capacity to learn from introspection, to observe oneself in relation to others. To alter one’s perspectives and actions based on reflection is a capacity shared by all humans. Many cultures place a high value on doing activities and accomplishing tasks, which often leaves little space and time for reflection. Reflection is central to the process of inquiry, framing, positioning, and dialogue. Paulo Freire (1998) notes that critical praxis “involves a dynamic and dialectic movement between ‘doing’ and ‘reflecting on doing’” (p. 43). Reflection informs our actions. Reflection enables us to act in the world in meaningful, effective, and responsible ways. Action The concept of intercultural praxis refers to an on-going process of thinking, reflecting and acting. Intercultural praxis emphasizes responsible action to create a more socially just, equitable and peaceful world. To be aware of what informs ours choices and actions. To think about the implications of our actions. To think about how our choices and actions are interrelated in the context of globalization and relations of power. Intercultural praxis offers us a process of critical, reflective thinking and acting that enables us to navigate the complex and challenging intercultural spaces we inhabit interpersonally, communally, and globally. Summary Definitions of culture Culture as shared meaning Culture as contested meaning Culture as resource Key concepts Positionality Standpoint theory Ethnocentrism Intercultural praxis: a set of skills, processes and practices for critical, reflective thinking and acting. Inquiry Framing Positioning Dialogue Reflection Action
The purpose of this assignment is for you to practice, develop, and hone your dialogical skills. This discussion is not meant as a place for you to do processing. It is a public space to share you
Sorrells, Intercultural Communication, Instructor Resources Chapter 8 The Culture of Capitalism and the Business of Intercultural Communication Lecture Notes: Chapter Overview, Objectives and Outline Chapter Overview The financial crisis that erupted in the U.S. in fall 2008 sent shock waves throughout the entire global financial system with devastating consequences for billions around the world. The economic crisis illustrates well the intricate web of financial interdependence, the frailty of the global economic system and the ubiquitous yet uneven impact of economic globalization. Around the globe and in the U.S., the economic crisis dramatically increased the ranks of the unemployed and the number of people living in poverty. Foreclosed homes, lost jobs, reduced credit to meet payroll, diminished investments, shrinking consumption, corporate closures, furloughs and layoffs, bank collapses, reduced remittances that increase hardship for people dependent on money from migrants, a dramatic slow-down in world trade…what does all this have to do with intercultural communication? This chapter addresses the linkages between intercultural communication and capitalism historically and today in the global context. We begin with a history of capitalism and discuss the emergence of the culture of capitalism in the U.S. and globally. The purpose of the overview of the culture of capitalism is threefold: the first goal is to situate the culture of capitalism historically to understand how we find ourselves where we are today; the second aim is to unmask what is seen as “normal” and “just the way things are” by revealing the values, assumptions and ideologies that underlie and constitute the culture of capitalism; the third purpose is to understand how the culture of capitalism impacts intercultural interactions. A discussion of cultural dimensions in the workplace, trends in managing “diversity” and multicultural and virtual teams is presented to understand the challenges and benefits of an increasingly diverse workforce. The global intercultural marketplace is our next stop where we explore the commodification of culture, tourism and the consumption of cultural “others.” The final section offers steps to move towards increased economic and social responsibility as intercultural actors in the global context. Chapter Objectives To understand how the culture of capitalism impacts intercultural communication. To explore the history, values and ideologies that constitute the culture of capitalism and the effect on cultures in the U.S. and globally. To examine the cultural dimensions of the workplace, diversity management and multicultural teams. To provide concrete strategies for economic and social responsibility as intercultural actors in the global context. Key Terms *indicated in bold and italicized letters below Capitalism GLOBE Dimensions Use Value Assertiveness Exchange Value Performance Orientation Surplus Value Humane Orientation Sign Value Mercantilism Multicultural Teams Neoliberalism Virtual Teams Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions Commodification of Culture Individualism-Collectivism Spectacle Power Distance Fetishization Uncertainty Avoidance Masculinity-Femininity Confucian Dynamism Introduction: The economic crisis in 2008 illustrates the intricate web of financial interdependence, the frailty of the global economic system and the ubiquitous yet uneven impact of economic globalization. The economic crisis reveals wealth disparities among racial and ethnic groups and the inequitable global relations between developed and developing nations. Commodities shape intercultural relations, migrations, and intercultural conflicts. This chapter addresses the linkages between intercultural communication and capitalism historically and today in the global context. Historical Context: Capitalism and Globalization Capitalism 101: The Historical Emergence of the Culture of Capitalism Capitalism: A complex social logic that produces a set of relationships among capitalists, laborers, and consumers. Use Value: The value of commodity determined by its utility. Exchange Value: The value of commodity determined by the profit it generates through exchange. Capitalism and Colonialism: Capital Accumulation and the Nation-State At the beginning of the 1400s, China was the most technologically advanced society in the world with sophisticated trade practices, military, and political/social organization. By the 16th century, economic dominance shifted to Europe. The extraction of raw materials from the New World and other colonies financed the European development. Slavery provided the exploitable mass labor to extract raw materials to produce commodities, which were sold for profit developing the modern capitalist economy. The world racial hierarchy was foundational to the accumulation of capital and the concentration of wealth in Europe and the U.S. By the 17th century, the nobility and merchant class in European nation-states enacted policies and practices, which economist refer to as mercantilism. Mercantilism: The implementation of protectionist policies that exclude foreign goods and subsidize cheap labor in certain industries. Trading companies (i.e. the East Indies Trading Company, the Hudson’s Bay Company. Precursors to today’s corporations) joined forces with nation-state militaries to ensure the continued extraction of wealth around the world. Intercultural encounters with trading companies dramatically altered the way of life, economic livelihood and social organization of indigenous communities in the New World and Africa. Material things made locally such as pottery, clothing, tools and weapons were replaced by imported goods. Increased dependence on world trade and contributed to the loss of cultural knowledge. Integration into the world economy, then as now, has significant and irreversible impact on cultures. Capitalism and the Industrial Revolution: Creating the Working Class The industrial revolution in England between the 1800s-1900s initiated a new means of capital accumulation. The link between producers and the means of production is severed. Control of the means of production—land, materials, tools and equipment—are taken away from peasants, craftspeople and workers. Workers have no alternative but to negotiate agreements to use the land and the tools they need, receiving wages for their labor. Since capitalists control the means of production and the goods that are produced, laborers who produce the goods must buy what they need from capitalists. Therefore, people not only become laborers but also consumers. Thus, through the industrial revolution of the 19th century, the working class was forged. Working class is characterized by: Members of the working class must be mobile, allowing them to move, unfettered by property ownership, to places where work is needed. They are segmented by race, ethnicity, gender, religion and age. They must be disciplined. Modeled after prisons, the factory was a central site of control with constant supervision, rewards and punishments. The culture of capitalism established a distinct orientation to time as ruled by the clock, equated with money and exploited like commodities and laborers for maximum profit. They often resisted the conditions imposed upon them by the capitalist class. Capitalism and Consumption: Creating the Consumer By the late 1800s, capitalism had reached a defining moment with panic gripping businesspeople and governments. The construction of the capitalist and labor classes led to the overproduction of goods and economic depression loomed. In the early 20th century, the consumer was born. To accommodate the excess production of goods accomplished through the industrial revolution, luxuries had to be transformed into necessities. Americans had to be socialized through rewards and enticements to consume and the desire for things developed through the culture of capitalism. Textbox 1: Intercultural Praxis: Culture and Consumption The textbox discusses how we can use intercultural praxis to understand the spread of consumer culture around the world. Uses examples from India to show how the development in Indian economy cultivated younger generations as consumers. Capitalism, Corporations and Global Bodies of Governance Corporations have their origins in the trading companies of the 17th century, which allowed groups of investors to avoid the risk of individual debt and loss though backing by the nation-state. Today, corporations exercise power through campaign contributions, lobbying for legislation such as “free” trade agreements, environmental, health care and labor policies as well as military contracts that serve corporate interests and by using the media to influence public opinion. At the end of WWII, President Roosevelt invited government financial leaders from 44 countries to Bretton Woods, New Hampshire to lay out plans to re-build war-torn economies and to insure economic stability. Established the IMF, the World Bank, and the General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade (GATT, later the World Trade Organization) These organizations forced the integration of Latin American, Asian, African, and Eastern European countries into global economy. Their regulations and restrictions on developing countries had devastating impact on the local economies and social services. Capitalism, Neoliberalism and Globalization At the end of the 20th century, neoliberalism dramatically increased the movement of capital, commodities, services, information and labor around the globe. Neoliberalism: The reassertion of liberal ideologies for reduced state intervention, deregulation, privatization, decreased social protection, and elimination of labor unions. Today, global financial institutions (IMF, WB, WTO) replaced the colonial and military forces to accumulate capital and exploit labor. Surplus value: The profit made by reducing labor costs. Companies move their manufacturing and assembly sites offshore to countries like Mexico, China and Indonesia where cheaper labor is available, and where few if any labor laws or environmental restrictions exist. Dispossessed of their land and means of production, farmers and craftspeople in developing nations have no choice but to seek work in factories at less than living wages. The labor force is segmented or stratified based on various forms of social discrimination. The increased flow of women into the workforce who are paid lower wages than men. In the logic of capitalism, sexism, racism, bias against immigrants and exploitation of the working class are profitable. Capitalism shapes and informs U.S. culture and cultures that are touched or engulfed by its catalytic and consuming powers. The Culture of Capitalism The culture of capitalism promotes: Individualism. Competitiveness The pursuit of personal goals and interests. Consumption. Social relations that are structured by consumer relations. Interpersonal relationships that are theorized, assessed and experienced in terms of costs and benefits. Relationships that are mediated and expressed through commodities, where relationships with people are secondary to relationships with things. Segmentation and stratification of labor as well as consumers. Reinforces and profits from sexism, racism, classism and other forms of social discrimination. The rhetoric of “colorblindness,” “cultural difference,” and the market logic of capitalism. Textbox 2: Communicative Dimensions: Communication and Ideology Uses the movie Wall Street (1987) and its sequel (2010) to discuss the shifting ideologies of capitalism and corporate greed. Shows examples of how capitalist ideologies are part of our everyday communication, such as proverbs and bumper stickers. In capitalist societies, our identities, values, and relationships are mediated and defined by commodities. Intercultural Communication at Work Cultural Dimensions of the Workplace Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions: In the late 1960s Dutch psychologist Geert Hofstede (1980) came up with four dimensions of cultural variability through his research on IBM employees. Individualism-Collectivism: Hofstede’s cultural dimension that highlights the differences between individualistic cultures and collectivistic cultures. Power Distance: Hofstede’s cultural dimension that highlights how the less powerful members accept unequal distribution of power within organizations. Uncertainty Avoidance: Hofstede’s cultural dimension that highlights the tendency to feel threatened by unknown and uncertain situations. Masculinity-Femininity: Hofstede’s cultural dimension that distinguishes the societies with distinct gender roles and achievements (masculinity) and societies with flexible gender norms and balanced lifestyle (femininity). Confucian Dynamism: Hofstede’s cultural dimension that highlights the characteristics of East Asian countries such as long-term orientation to time, hard work, frugality, and respect for hierarchy. GLOBE Dimensions: Nine cultural dimensions of Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness, including institutional and group collectivism, gender egalitarianism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, future orientation, assertiveness, performance orientation, and humane orientation. Assertiveness: One of the dimensions of GLOBE on the extent to which individuals in organization or societies are assertive and confrontational. Performance Orientation: One of the dimensions of GLOBE on the extent to which an organization/society rewards members for their quality of performance and level of involvement. Humane Orientation: One of the dimensions of GLOBE on the degree to which organizations/society reward people for being fair, friendly, generous, and kind to others. Managing Diversity, Multicultural and Virtual Teams Multicultural teams: Task-oriented groups composed of members from different national and ethnic groups. The cultural composition of work groups impacts group effectiveness in three inter-related ways: Cultural norms about how work groups function and how they are structured Cultural diversity or the number of different cultures in the group Relative cultural distance or the degree to which members of the group are culturally different from one another. Virtual Teams: Work groups with members who are geographically dispersed and who rely on technology-mediated communication. Virtual terms can face a number of misunderstandings and conflicts due to the lack of awareness of cultural differences. Example: E-mail exchanges between U.S. Americans and Israelis. Effective virtual teams can be achieved by building trust, offering constructive feedback, increasing awareness of cultural differences and histories, and establishing group norms. The Intercultural Marketplace and Economic Responsibility Commodification of Culture: The practice in which cultural experiences are produced and consumed for the market. Example: Art work created by Pueblo and Navajo women in New Mexico, and how tourists and buyers consume them as “traditional” and “authentic” cultural products. Cultural difference is viewed as exotic and marketable. Commodification of culture often creates barriers for ICC. Creates stereotypes. Reduces cultural differences into objects IC relations are reduced into monetary exchanges. Tourism and Intercultural Communication Tourism is one of the world’s largest industries employing more than 258 million people worldwide. Travel can provide opportunities for intercultural engagement. However, today, tourists increasingly choose options that limit their exposure and access to the very places they pay to visit. On the one hand, Western tourists desire and often demand the familiarity of “home;” yet, simultaneously, complaints abound that “other” cultures are too “Americanized,” too “Westernized” or too much like home. Spectacle: The domination of media images and consumer society over individuals and their relationships with others. Seduced through leisure, entertainment and consumption, the spectacle serves to pacify and depoliticize society. Happiness and fulfillment are found through consumption of commodities and spectacles. Example: Mardi Gras celebration in New Orleans. Sign Value: The symbolic value of commodity that conveys social meaning and social positioning. Fetishization: The process of endowing commodities with symbolic and social power. Example: The marketing and consumption of Mardi Gras serves both to accumulate profits for commercial interests and at the same time constructs demands for and attempts to satisfy the tourists’ desires for experiences—experiences that satisfy needs for self-expression and identity. The fetishization of commodities and the spectacle society hide the exploitation of labor, damage to the environment and the impact on culture that make them possible. Economic Responsibility and Intercultural Communication Disparities caused by the culture of capitalism: U.S. Americans, 4.6% of the world’s population, accounted for 33% of the global consumption. The one billion residents of high income countries consumed more than 80% of the global total. The 2.3 billion residents of low income countries consumed less than 3%. Today, more than 1/5th of the world’s population lives on the brink of hunger and death. Four Steps Towards Economic Justice and Sustainability: Observe your consumption patterns Keep a journal of the things you purchase Note where you shop Note where the goods—things, entertainment and experiences—are produced Educate yourself about the circumstances and impact As a consumer: Find out about the working conditions of the people who make the goods you consume; engage in dialogue with the people who provide services for you while on vacation or when consuming a cultural experience. As a laborer/worker: Learn about the relationship between owners and workers in your organization/corporation; educate yourself about the norms, behaviors and attitudes that have enabled the success (or lack of it) of your company/organization. As a capitalist: If you have a savings account, investments, stocks or other means of making money from money, learn about how this works. Act responsibly based on your knowledge Make conscious and responsible consumer choices: For example, when you find out that the mega-store where you prefer to shop is only able to provide such low prices because of exploitative labor and unsustainable environmental practices, seek out alternatives. Transform sites of consumption into sites for intercultural praxis: Along with purchasing an object or experience, actively engage in intercultural dialogue. Act to challenge inequities in the workplace. Join others in challenging inequity and injustice Consider your spheres of influence: Make a point of talking with others about your decisions and find others who support your values of social and economic responsibility. Join consumer groups or activist organizations: One of the greatest losses of advanced capitalist societies is human connection, engagement with others and civic contributions. Join or start your own group that creates alternatives and challenges the dehumanizing conditions of the culture of capitalism. Summary Introduction Historical context of capitalism and globalization Culture of capitalism Intercultural communication at work The intercultural marketplace and economic responsibility

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