What did you learn about your dissertation in RES 9350 through drafting your literature review and outlining chapters 1 and 3? In what areas do you still need to conduct further secondary research for literature review?
Toxic Leadership and employees
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What did you learn about your dissertation in RES 9350 through drafting your literature review and outlining chapters 1 and 3? In what areas do you still need to conduct further secondary research fo
Chapter 1: introduction Introduction Statement of problem Purpose of statement Theoretical framework Nature of the study/study design Research questions Definition of terms Significance of the study Summary Chapter 3: Research methodology Introduction Research methodology and design Population and sample Data sources/instruments/ materials Data collection procedures Data analysis procedures Assumptions Limitations Delimitations Ethical assurances Summary
What did you learn about your dissertation in RES 9350 through drafting your literature review and outlining chapters 1 and 3? In what areas do you still need to conduct further secondary research fo
72 Stephanie Bingham-Tillman RES 9350 SESSION 7 CHAPTER 2 Final Draft Chapter 2: Outline Introduction To understand nontoxic leadership and how to avoid toxic leadership better, I conducted a comprehensive literature review. The rest of this chapter includes the search strategy and theoretical foundation from which I sourced and analyzed literature. The chapter also includes discussions on the most relevant literature, divided into the following subsections: concept of leadership defined, toxic leadership characteristics and role of leadership in creating a positive work environment, characteristics of positive work environment, benefits of a positive work environment, work environment and employee motivation, job satisfaction and turnover intentions. the chapter ends with a summary of the main points, key findings, and any gaps in the literature. Literature Search Strategy For this study, a search for various sources published within the last 5 years and older sources that were integral to understanding reentry, reintegration, and the family support system. To gather relevant literature for this review, I searched databases such as EBSCOhost, ERIC, JSTOR, ResearchGate, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar. The extant literature using the Apollos university online Library was located using the following keywords: toxic leadership, nontoxic/positive leadership, leadership behavior, influence, leadership style, toxic workplace/work environment, toxic/complicit followers, toxic triangle, worker well-being, and coping with a toxic work environment. 90% of the sources were published between 2017-2021 to ensure current sources are used. Theoretical Framework For the conceptual framework, I used Alvarado’s (2016) triangular model of workplace toxicity. Alvarado posited this three-part model to explain the associations between toxic work environments, toxic subordinates, and toxic leadership. Fraher (2016) specified this model as the toxic triangle, and Alvarado (2016) developed a scale associated with this model to measure workplace toxicity. The author classified this scale as the Work Environment Scale of Toxicity (AWEST). To contribute qualitative evidence to the development of the AWEST, Alvarado (2016) surveyed 280 participants who worked in a physical workspace for over 2 years. Alvarado depicted four factors that contributed to the toxicity of the workplace: perceived threat, favoritism, bullying, and overall organizational climate. Through an analysis of the surveyed participants answers, Alvarado uncovered what factors influenced toxicity and then used these factors to refine the AWEST. As Alvarado (2016) explained, the triangular toxicity model accounted for the complexities that contributed to destructive leadership. I used this model to construct a perspective to demystify why if a single action was taken, such as replacing an abusive leader, firing employees with attitude problems, or fixing detrimental aspects of company culture, toxicity might remain in the workplace. Using Alvarado’s (2016) findings, I examined all four components of the triangular model when toxicity in the workplace was identified. A toxic workplace environment is recognized as one that is characteristic of unfavorable experiences that poorly affect employees (Anjum et al., 2018). According to Anjum et al. (2018), toxic behaviors in the workplace can result in added expenses, overall lower company spirit, low rates of retention, poor work-life balance, worsening health, frequent call-outs, and lower productivity overall. Participants provided information about their experiences with resolving the state of toxic workplace environments, while also providing input about their past experiences aside from the current environment in which they work, which was also discussed. I used AWEST to 9 examine how the leadership component influenced the toxicity of the work environment and subordinate employees. I studied how positive leadership could lead to lowering instances of toxicity to determine potential alternatives to toxic leadership styles and behaviors. Review Of Key Themes and Constructs Concept of Leadership Defined Leadership is the ability of an individual or a group of individuals to influence and guide followers or other members of an organization (Oc, 2018). Human resources can have a competitive advantage if managed effectively in the dynamic competitive global environment. Arguably, organizations must manage their employees effectively by applying different leadership styles that support employee motivation in boosting staff performance. For instance, Oc (2018) proposed that leaders need a diverse mix of competencies that incorporate management board and junior staff in meeting the overwhelming products awareness and marketing strategies of the 21st century. However, the current findings supported by Oc (2018) indicate that existing literature has limited information on how leadership styles affect employee performance. An autocratic leadership, also called authoritative leadership as defined by Al Khajeh et al. (2018) is a type of leadership where a single leader takes up the authority of leading and does not concern himself with the group ideas. Al Khajeh et al. (2018) found that autocratic leaders make decisions faster as they limit consultations before deciding. Employees, therefore, have maximum time to complete tasks on time, improving overall performance. Equally, Al Khajeh et al. (2018) established that autocratic leadership improves overall communication within the organization as their command is received directly by workers eliminating unnecessary message distortion by involving various departments. In addition, the minimum time is used to disseminate important information, thus creating extra time to complete technical tasks. The above evidence strongly suggests that autocratic leaders make decisions faster and improve overall communication within the organization, facilitating a fast flow of instruction and efficient working (Al Khajeh et al., 2018). Lee et al (2019) studied Relationship between authentic leadership and nurses’ intent to leave: The mediating role of work environment and burnout. This study aimed to explore the mediating effects of work environment and burnout on the relationship between authentic leadership and the intention of nurses to leave their job. The researchers concluded that leadership plays an important role in creating a positive working environment for employees in the workplace to improve their job satisfaction (Labrague et al., 2020). Labrague et al. (2020) studied influence of toxic and transformational leadership practices on nurses’ job satisfaction, job stress, absenteeism and turnover intention: A cross‐sectional study. The findings showed that leadership plays an important role in influencing retention strategies, including transformational leadership and derail toxic leadership practices in nurse managers through evidence-based education, training and professional development in the workplaces Toxic Leadership Characteristics and Role of leadership in creating a positive work environment Leadership plays an important role in creating a positive workplace. For instance, Bakkal et al. (2019) investigated the effect of toxic leadership on job satisfaction and turnover intention as well as understand if job satisfaction of nurses and hospital employees has a mediating effect between toxic leadership perceptions (self-seeking, negative state of mind, selfishness, in appreciativeness) and turnover intention. Leaders need to fight toxic leadership in their organizations to create a positive work environment. Singh et al. (2018) addressed the paucities and clarifies the nature, process, reasons and consequences of “toxic” leadership. The authors review, summarize and integrate the existing literature on toxic leadership to draw nomological distinctions amongst different dark leadership constructs and eventually present stimulators and behavioral symptoms of toxic leadership. Abbas and Saad (2020) highlighted the impact of toxic leadership behavior at workplace climate with mediation of work place harassment (WPH) in textile industry of Pakistan. This research shows that toxic leadership behavior has a strong negative impact on workplace climate results in low degree of employee performance, lack of motivation and absenteeism, which affect employee retention. Kurtulmuş (2020) explored how under toxic leadership workplace bullying victims struggle and engage into coping strategies in order to reduce stress-related health and mental problems and what is the role of followers in this process if there is any. Kurtulmuş (2020) found that toxic leadership practices may also cause increase in workplace bullying behaviors among followers, and they play an important role on this relationship, leading to attrition and burnout. Abbas and Saad (2020) investigated the impact of toxic leadership behavior at workplace climate with mediation of work place harassment (WPH) in textile industry of Pakistan. Abbas and Saad (2020) found that toxic leadership behavior has a strong negative impact on workplace climate results in low degree of employee performance, lack of motivation and absenteeism, which affect employee retention. Matos et al. (2018) investigated toxic leadership and the masculinity contest culture. Matos et al. (2018) found that toxic cultures retain employees despite their largely detrimental effects on job attitudes and well-being, including burnout. Previous studies showed a positive relationship between leadership and effective commitment among employees. The study of Al-Madi et al. (2017), targeting 215 employees in the United States, established the relationship between ethical leadership behaviors and affective commitment among employees to be mediated by organizational support and economic rewards. The investigators used a two-faced survey to collect data from participants using survey instruments. After conducting the analysis, Al-Madi et al. (2017) found that ethical leadership behaviors such as respect, feedback, and communication influenced employees’ connection to the organization. According to the findings, leaders who used different ethical behavior practices such as showing care to employees increased their emotional attachment to the organizations, resulting in high affective commitment (Al-Madi et al., 2017). Brouwers and Paltu (2020) conducted a similar study to investigate the relationship between ethical leadership behavior practices and affective commitment in the United States. A sample of 215 employees was recruited from the telecommunication industry to take part in the study. Data collection was done through survey instruments, including the affective employee commitment scale and perceived organizational scale. Multiple regression analysis using SPSS software was used to conduct the analysis. The study results showed that ethical leadership behaviors played by leaders, such as promoting respect and showing concern to employees, increased employees’ emotional attachment to the organization (Brouwers & Paltu, 2020). According to the findings, employees whose leaders respect them, are transparent, hold high integrity levels, feel attracted to them, and develop a strong emotional attachment to the organization, which is an affective commitment (Akca, 2017). The literature above reveals that ethical leadership behaviors characterized by care, trust, transparency, and employee development influence employees to develop strong emotional attachments to the organizations, commonly known as affective commitment. Charity Of A Toxic Leader Lack of moral philosophical ethics/narcissist is a toxic leadership trait that could result in decreased retention of employees. For instance, Baloyi (2020) proposed exploring the effects of toxic leadership in the workplace using qualitative methods. Baloyi (2020) established that toxic trait of leaders include lack of respect for his colleagues, juniors, and subordinate employees, doesn’t accept consequences of his own decisions, is unfair, displaying an illegitimate sense of entitlement, self-absorbed, project beliefs of entitlement, and superiority, entitlement in administration, lack of empathy and projects negative traits onto others. In addition, toxic narcissistic leaders are likely to violate administrative law policies and procedures (Baloyi, 2020). Similarly, Milosevic et al. 2020 conducted a qualitative study to explore the effects of toxic leaders in organizations using a sample of 24 participants. Data was collected through interviews. After data analysis, the findings showed that narcissist leaders might be charming and engaging, but below the surface, these leaders are exploitative and quite ruthless (Milosevic et al., 2020). Narcissist leaders are perceived as highly competent and calculative, which is why they can influence others to pursue goals that are destructive for the organizations (Milosevic et al., 2020). Using quantitative methods, Saleem et al. (2021) intended to explore the relationship between toxic narcissist leaders and organizational commitment. A total of 219 participants took part in the research, and data was collected through questionnaire surveys. Linear regression analysis and PROCESS Macro by Hayes data analysis techniques were used to analyze data. According to research findings, narcissist toxic leaders showed toxic traits of taking credit for the achievements of other employees without appreciating them, which may violate their rights and create a stressful and untrustworthy working environment (Saleem et al., 2021). Narcissists may use abusive and authoritative supervision, and they change their mood while dealing with the subordinates and are rarely interested in listening to their requirements, problems, and suggestions (Saleem et al., 2021). The toxic traits of the leaders make them focus on only promoting themselves, are selfish in sharing ideas, and do not care about other employees (Saleem et al., 2021). Muaaz and Khurram (2020) explored the consequences of having toxic leaders in organizations using quantitative methods. Three hundred ninety-three participants took part in the research, and data was collected through questionnaires. The structural equation modeling (SEM) technique was used in data analysis. Muaaz and Khurram (2020) found that leaders with toxic behaviors could create a toxic environment for their subordinates either intentionally or unintentionally, resulting in decreased performance and increased turnover rates of employees. Narcissistic leaders are not concerned about their staff’s mental health and well-being and are perceived as arrogant, selfish, inflexible, and bullies (Muaaz & Khurram, 2020). Blair et al. (2017) proposed exploring the effects of narcissism traits on employees’ performance using qualitative methods and a sample of 162 participants. Narcissistic leaders made communication one way they deliberately ignored and isolated team members and reacted in a defensive manner when criticized and refused to justify decisions they made (Blair et al., 2017). In addition, the toxic undermined the authority expressed themselves in a self-authoritarian manner and showed insensitivity by isolating themselves from their peers and not caring about the issues and welfare of the employees (Blair et al., 2017). Autocratic/Authoritarian leadership has been identified as another trait of a toxic leader by previous researchers. Omar and Ahmad (2018) pioneered a study to investigate the role of toxic leadership style on job satisfaction using qualitative methods. Data were collected from 200 participants. Omar and Ahmad (2018) established that leaders possessed toxic authoritarian traits. They did not want any opinion other than their own to be heard and were self-centered, egotistical, and abused power by promoting their image. In addition, autocratic leaders may over-control the subordinate staff by outlining what needs to be accomplished, when it should be accomplished, and how it should be done (Omar and Ahmad, 2018). Maladaptive was another toxic trait found in leaders. They show socially incompetent behaviors such as seeking unnecessary attention, a parasitic lifestyle, poor behavioral controls, and a lack of realistic plans for the future for organizations (Omar and Ahmad, 2018). Abbas and Saad (2020) conducted a quantitative study to explore the effects of autocratic traits of leaders on work performed using a sample of 351 participants. Data was collected through structured questionnaires. The findings showed that authoritarianism’s toxic traits include self-centeredness, superiority and egoistic attitude, abusive supervision, self-promotion, narcissism, and workplace harassment associated with bullying and emotional abuse of employees (Abbas & Saad, 2020). In addition, the negative traits negatively impact employee engagement and performance and autocratic toxic leaders have egoistic personalities where they take credit for their teams’ efforts (Abbas & Saad, 2020). Incompetent/ poor communication/ poor strategic skills are likely toxic traits of toxic leaders. Aravena (2019) conducted a qualitative study to investigate the relationship between leadership incompetency and employee retention. A total of 207 participants were interviewed. The use of open-ended questionnaires collected data. The results revealed that lack of strategic skills was associated with making poor decisions without data, focusing on administrative tasks rather than leadership for learning tasks, inability to create professional discussions, failure of vision, and lack of emotional intelligence (Aravena, 2019). Incompetency was associated with the inability to create teams and recognize employees’ potential, needs, and weaknesses (Aravena, 2019). Autocratic Leadership was linked with poor communication, over control, abuse of power, and toxic leaders being the center of attention (Aravena, 2019). Burns (2017) intended to investigate the impact of poor leadership styles on organizations by doing a literature review using two articles. Burns (2017) established that incompetent leader had the following toxic traits careless ridicule of employees and customers, angry tantrums, rudeness, favoritism, and non-contingent punishment and also were concerned with gaining and maintaining control through ways that create fear and intimidation in employees. In addition, incompetent leaders exhibited other traits such as bullying through harassment, socially excluding employees, which may affect them in effectively executing their work tasks and cause stress and mental health problems among employees (Burns, 2017). In addition, arrogant, boastful, rigid, and inflexible traits were other traits found in toxic leaders (Burns, 2017). Previous studies have shown that discrimination is another toxic trait of toxic leaders. Singh et al. (2017) intended to explore the effects of discrimination by leaders in a workplace using quantitative methods. Data were collected from 150 participants using questionnaires, and a regression analysis technique was used to analyze data. Singh et al. (2017) found that toxic leaders showed discrimination traits in the gender education level of subordinates as subordinates with higher education levels were favored more by leaders, and subordinates with low education levels were received discrimination from toxic leaders, which affected communication relationships. In addition, male employees received more extrinsic rewards than females (Singh et al., 2017). In another study, Erden and Otken (2019) conducted a quantitative study exploring the association between paternalistic leadership and employee discrimination. Data were collected by the use of questionnaires from 183 participants. The findings showed that discrimination was common among human resource leaders, especially during recruitment, hiring, promotion, assignments delegation, evaluation, payment, and rewards, and training among subordinates (Erden & Otken 2019). In addition, nepotism was also practiced in hiring processes, and also paternalistic leadership in organizations may lead to better treatment of those who are close to the paternal leaders (Erden & Otken 2019). Lack of honesty, integrity, and irritate leaders are toxic traits that may lead to decreased retention and high turnover rates. Akca (2017), exploring 291 participants, purposed to determine the effects of angry leaders and employee retention using qualitative method. Data was collected through questionnaires, and the regression analyses technique was applied in data analysis. After data analysis, the participants reported that leaders had toxic traits in the workplace, resulting in decreased retention (Akca, 2017). The toxic traits included disrespect, not being recognized for their good work, lack of integrity, failure to give ongoing feedback as part of the manager-employee relationship, narcissist, and abusive supervision (Akca, 2017). Brouwers and Paltu (2020) proposed investigating the impact of toxic leaders on job satisfaction in organizations using qualitative methods and a sample of 600 employees. Brouwers and Paltu (2020) toxic leadership, such as authoritarian leadership, abusive supervision, and dishonesty, had negative outcomes on organizations such as decreased performance, higher turnover intention, and decreased commitment of employees. As evidenced by the above data analysis, toxic traits of leaders include narcissism, lack of competency, lack of integrity and honesty, lack of philosophical ethics, autocratic, discrimination, and irritate toxic traits. The identified toxic traits have negative consequences on organizations, such as decreased retention, high turn-over, decreased performance, low productivity, decreased commitment and engagement. In addition, the negative traits may also have negative outcomes on employees, including stress, anxiety, mental health problems, and high levels of burnout. Strategies For Addressing Toxic Leadership In Organizations Training of both toxic leaders and employees is a strategy likely to address toxic leadership in organizations. Burns (2017) conducted a qualitative study exploring measures taken to eliminate toxic leadership in organizations. Burns (2017) found that leaders should be trained on interpersonal relationship skills to treat their subordinates as it helps shape their subordinates’ perceptions of interactional justice and reactions. Organizations should provide self-awareness and self-management training for leaders at all levels and set standards for accountability (Burns, 2017). Training may promote fairness in employees, especially subordinates (Burns, 2017). In another study, Milosevic et al. (2020) proposed investigating ways of getting rid of toxic leadership using qualitative methods. A sample of 24 participants took part in the research, and data was collected through interviews. After analyzing data, Milosevic et al. (2020) found that employees/subordinates need to train and learn strategies to help them stand up to toxic leaders and minimize their toxic impact. In addition, employees’ understanding of workplace laws helped them know their rights, which may prevent them from toxic leadership within organizations (Milosevic et al., 2020). Baloyi (2020) intended to explore mechanisms of overcoming toxic leadership using qualitative methods. The findings revealed that toxic leaders should have thorough training to acquire skills that enable them to lead ethically, effectively, efficiently, and innovatively (Baloyi, 2020). In addition, leadership positions require training on ethics and morals, which may help leaders have the best interests of their employees and organizations. This may result in improved performance and increased engagement (Baloyi (2020). Leary and Ashman (2018), exploring 34 participants, investigated strategies of addressing narcissistic leadership in organizations in a male-dominated sector. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and a multifactor leadership questionnaire (MLQ). Leary and Ashman (2018) established that higher education, training, learning about work laws, mentoring, and understanding women’s barriers in many male-dominated career fields might help female employees overcome toxic discriminatory leadership in organizations. De-hierarchization may address the challenge of toxic leadership in organizations and is discussed in the next paragraph as a strategy for eliminating toxic leadership. De-hierarchization may address the challenge of toxic leadership in organizations. Ghiasipour et al. (2017) pioneered a study to investigate tactics that can be used to reduce toxic leadership using qualitative methods and a sample of 27 participants. Data were collected using semi-structured, in-depth interviews. After data analysis, the participants reported that organizational structure had formal and informal communication patterns, and leaders were misusing their powers which made communication difficult between leaders and employees (Ghiasipour et al., 2017). Ghiasipour et al. (2017) also found that self-controlling hierarchies, management rotation, transparent organizational structures with mutual control and dialogue without fear, more employee participation may help eliminate toxic leadership in organizations. Dehghanan et al. (2021), through a systematic review using 59 articles, investigated the relationship between de-hierarchization and toxic leadership change. Dehghanan et al. (2021) established that for organizations to have transparency, positive leadership styles, and success, toxic leaders should undergo training, behavioral change, the introduction of a new organizational culture with revised policies and laws. It was also revealed that leaders should undergo a thorough evaluation to ensure they have the competencies, skills, and education to take leadership positions (Dehghanan et al., 2021). In the next paragraph, creating a positive organizational culture as a strategy for addressing toxic leadership is discussed. Creating a positive organizational culture with corrective mechanisms may help organizations overcome toxic leadership using qualitative methods. Warrick (2017) explored how positive organizational culture may help eliminate toxic leadership in organizations. Organizations should hire competent leaders who embrace positive cultures and take responsibility for their actions, such as decision making. Leaders influence culture through their strategies, practices, values, leadership style, and example. They should create strategies that achieve the desired results or goals while also creating a great and supportive workplace. Creating positive strategies may result in a positive, healthy culture in organizations and create a sense of belonging. Educating employees on the organization’s cultural ideals helps foster communication and reinforces building a strong culture. Van and Fine (2018) conducted a qualitative study to investigate the process of creating a new work culture that eliminates toxic leadership. Van and Fine (2018) found that information does not flow the right way when there is toxic leadership as a centralized hierarchy means that lower-level employees had challenges of their voices being heard at higher levels. The researchers also reported that some hierarchical organizational structures make it harder for employees or executives to speak out and resist toxic practices that break the law. According to Van and Fine (2018), the best way to address the toxic structures of organizations is by first addressing top toxic leaders through replacement, punishment, and accountability. Replacing the top toxic leaders ensures that the new leaders who clean up toxic cultures will be competent, honest, and take responsibility (Van & Fine, 2018). Additionally, managers and employees with toxic values and practices should also be replaced as this creates psychological safety by showing staff that changes are feasible and learnable (Van & Fine, 2018). Hoppe (2021) proposed exploring strategies for addressing toxic leadership using qualitative methods. Hoppe (2021) found that developing positive organizational culture and leadership practices may help create a positive job-related identity for employees as it entails transparency. All organization employees and managers know what is going on within the organization, the organization’s values, and realistic targets and goals (Hoppe, 2021). In addition, effective communication should be implemented as good communication focuses on listening-understanding-discussing-compromising-deciding-acting as a team. With effective communication, suggestions for improvement are possible; a supportive working environment creates a sense of belonging, and feedback to problems is acted on immediately (Hoppe, 2021). Finally, the implementation of a good organizational culture that emphasizes feedback is identified by previous researchers as a strategy in addressing toxic leadership. It is presented in the next paragraph. Implementing a good organizational culture that emphasizes feedback is identified by previous researchers as a strategy in addressing toxic leadership. Muaaz and Khurram (2020) proposed exploring effective strategies to address toxic leadership in organizations using quantitative methods. A total of 393 participants participated in the research, and data was collected through structured questionnaires. The structural equation modeling (SEM) technique was used in data analysis. According to the findings, anonymous feedback by employees regarding the behavior of toxic leaders might help identify toxic leaders and the necessary steps taken to reduce their negative impact on employees and the work environment (Muaaz & Khurram, 2020). Organizations should take actions that predict and control the deviant behaviors of toxic leaders by setting up monitoring systems for detecting and intervening in existing toxic leadership (Muaaz & Khurram, 2020). According to, Muaaz and Khurram (2020 human resource feedback systems play a significant role in tackling toxic leadership in the workplace and identifying reasons for decreased performance by employees. Kasalak (2019) conducted a qualitative study to explore the impact of toxic leadership on organizations and strategies of eliminating toxic leadership. A sample of 707 participants was interviewed, and data were collected through questionnaires. The findings showed that toxic leadership that gives no value to subordinates issues and opinions, communication issues and undermines their hard work may cause high employee turnovers in organizations. According to Kasalak (2019), human resource needs to address the issue of high turnover and decreased performance by listening to subordinates’ opinions and grievances and giving feedback immediately. By doing investigations and giving feedback, human resources can address the issue of toxic leadership by replacing them and holding them accountable for their toxic traits (Kasalak, 2019). Overall, the articles reviewed suggest that strategies for addressing toxic leadership in organizations are important because negative leadership may negatively affect those they lead and the organization. Toxic leadership may result in decreased engagement, high turnover rates, decreased retention, low performance, and decreased productivity, leading to low work output in organizations. The negative effects may lead to loss of customers for organizations and a negative image of organizations. This prompts organizations to address the negative leadership by replacing all the toxic leaders and employees and implementing new policies and cultures. Implementing new cultures and policies ensures that all employees, managers, and leaders are involved in decision-making, and each individual’s grievances and opinions are heard. This may create a sense of belonging and increase engagement, performance, and improved well-being of all employees. Characteristics of Positive Work Environment A positive work environment has various factors that are characterized as being both effective workspaces for employees (Viotti et al., 2020). For instance, Viotti et al. (2020) discussed different characteristics of positive work environment, which will be used in this study to analyze the different features of a positive work environment. Backhaus also discussed Work environment characteristics associated with quality which applied to the current study. Lee and Scott (2018) investigated hospital nurses’ work environment characteristics and patient safety outcomes, which apply to the current study. Researchers identified support and absence of aggression are key features of a positive work environment. A positive work environment supports and empowers employees. For instance, Zutavern and Seifried (2021) conducted a study exploring the relationship between a positive environment and the growth of employees using qualitative research methods. A sample of 89 participants was interviewed. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews, and a qualitative content analysis technique was used to analyze the data. The results showed that employees benefited more from informal learning opportunities, which helped in skill development through sharing experiences and receiving support from colleagues, which may lead to increased commitment (Zutavern & Seifried, 2021). In addition, a supportive work environment creates a positive relationship of employees’ perception of the work environment. Also, it creates a positive relationship between employees and employers, resulting in increased retention (Zutavern & Seifried, 2021). Hardiyanto et al. (2019) investigated the impact of a positive environment on employees using quantitative methods and a sample of 65 participants. The use of questionnaires collected data, and multiple linear regression analysis methods were used in data analysis. Hardiyanto et al. (2019) established that a positive relationship between leaders and employees created by helping each other with work in different divisions leads to motivation and support, which results in job satisfaction. Furthermore, a conducive work environment creates a sense of comfort and sense of belonging and creates more harmonious relationships. It con that both the physical and psychological needs of employees are met. Physical needs may include good lighting systems, a noise-free environment, and adequate working resources and work facilities. In contrast, psychological needs include well-being, positive mental health, realistic and diverse organizational policies, and organizational cultures. In another study proposed investigating the link between employee empowerment and organizational commitment through qualitative methods. A total of 97 participants took part in the study, and data were collected through questionnaires. Data collected were analyzed using statistical tests, i.e., Cronbach’s alpha reliability, Pearson correlation, and Simple Linear Regression using SPSS 20.0. After data analysis, the results showed that a strong positive relationship between colleagues and leaders was the major motivating factor that increased commitment. In addition, competitive salary rates, training, recognition, and rewards were other factors that motivated employees in organizational commitment. Engagement of human resources in employees’ welfare may create a positive working environment. Shahreki (2019) pioneered a study exploring the relationship between human resources and employee productivity through qualitative methods and a sample of 187 human resource managers. Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) technique was used in the analysis. Shahreki (2019) found that human resource information systems may help human resource managers develop strategies that lead to increased employee productivity. Human resource managers can use motivational incentives like training, rewards, recognition, and understanding each employee’s background. This may create a sense of belonging and increased engagement of employees from diverse cultures (Shahreki, 2019). Meng and Berger (2019) investigated the role of organizational leaders on employee organizational engagement using 838 participants. An online survey by use of emails was used to collect data. According to study findings, employees who were satisfied with internal communication reported increased organizational engagement. Supportive organizational culture and excellent leadership skills create a positive relationship with employees, resulting in increased job performance and job satisfaction (Meng & Berger, 2019). Previous researchers have identified transformational leadership as a characteristic of a positive working environment. Khan et al. (2020) conducted a study exploring the impact of transformational leadership on employees’ well-being in organizations. Data was collected from 308 employees working in the telecommunication sector. Data was collected through surveys via emails, online surveys, and printed questionnaires. It was revealed that transformational leadership positively impacted employees’ intrinsic motivation as this helped employees think positively about themselves, the organization and tasks they perform and create positive relationships with leaders (Khan et al., 2020). The intrinsic motivations may lead to the efficiency and effectiveness of leaders toward their work performance (Khan et al., 2020). According to Khan et al. (2020), transformational leadership leads to fairness and honesty, resulting in less exhaustion and low burnout levels in the workplace. A positive work-life balance is a likely characteristic of a positive work environment. Chakraborty and Gangul (2019), exploring the relationship between work balance and a positive working environment, established that a positive work-life balance motivates employees as it helps maintain a positive working environment. Organizations can introduce recreational work-life activities which make employees balance and adjust their work life and family responsibilities, maintain their well-being, and increase productivity at work (Chakraborty & Gangul, 2019). In addition, appreciation of employees, encouragement of positive thinking, transparency, and positive flow of communication create a positive working environment and a sense of belonging and enhance employees’ morale in organizational performance and engagement (Chakraborty & Gangul, 2019). In the view of the above literature, it can be concluded that characteristics of a positive work environment include transformational leadership, recognition, rewards, training and development, diverse positive organizational cultures, positive work balance, and human resource engagement in employees’ welfare motivating factors for employees. These positive characteristics may result in increased organizational engagement, performance, productivity, and achievement of set organizational goals and targets. Benefits of a Positive Work Environment Previous research has identified several benefits of a positive work environment. For instance, Ahakwa et al. (2021) studied the Influence of employee engagement, work environment and job satisfaction on organizational commitment and performance of employees: A sampling weights in PLS path modelling. The study findings showed that organizational commitment fully mediated the link between work environment and employee performance in the WPLS-SEM model compared to PLS-SEM with partial mediation. This research is relevant to my dissertation because the findings will be used in this study to understand the influence of the work environment on employee engagement and commitment to organizations. Jaskyte et al. (2020) studied employees’ attitudes and values toward creativity, work environment, and job satisfaction in human service employees. This research findings shows supporting creativity and free flow of information among employees improves their sense of commitment to an organization. Geue (2018) conducted a quantitative study on the relationship between a positive work environment and organizational performance. A total of 230 employees participated in the research, and data was collected using questionnaires in the USA. In addition, hierarchical regression analyses and linear regression analyses were done. The scholar established that positive practices by leaders may lead to positive ethical behaviors in employees that result in positive organizational outcomes and employee well-being (Geue, 2018). In addition, when employees have trust, confidence, and positive relationship with their leaders and colleagues, increased work engagement and performance is observed, which is a significant benefit for organizations (Geue, 2018). Similarly, Chakraborty and Ganguly (2019) investigated the benefits of employee engagement in an organization. Chakraborty and Ganguly (2019) found that positive social and work relationships among and between employees and leaders and positive organizational culture lead to a satisfying work environment and engaged employees. In addition, employee engagement may yield tangible and intangible benefits to the organization, such as increased retention, increased productivity, work becoming a fun experience, and positive organizational performance linked to employees’ well-being (Chakraborty & Ganguly, 2019). In another study, Shore et al. (2018) explored the benefits of an all-inclusive working environment on organizations. After data analysis, it was reported that an inclusive work environment might lead to higher job satisfaction, innovation, creativity, and high retention among employees, which benefits the organization as it may lead to high productivity and increased organizational performance (Shore et al., 2018). A high inclusion climate enhances team information sharing, linked with team creativity (Shore et al., 2018). Inclusive work environments may result in employees feeling safe, improved work engagement, being valued through recognition of one’s hard work, feeling respected, creating a sense of belonging when involved in decision making, increased retention, and transparency within the organization (Shore et al., 2018). Randel et al. (2018) conducted a qualitative study exploring the effects of inclusive leadership on organizations. The findings showed that leadership styles might lead to a sense of belonging because of the support employees get, practicing equity with fairness within the organization create a sense of being needed in an organization, and involvement of employees in decision making. The positive leadership styles result in innovation and creativity, increased organizational performance, and low turnover rates. Inclusive leaders may use their vision to encourage employee commitment in achieving the set organizational goals (Randel et al., 2018). Leaders who recognize employees’ values create confidence in employees to be more innovative and improve their work performance resulting in high productivity (Randel et al., 2018). In a different study, Donley (2021) explored the advantages of job satisfaction in an organization using qualitative methods. Donley (2021) established that a supportive and safe work environment positively impacts organizations because of job satisfaction, increased engagement, increased productivity, and improved organizational commitment, increased retention, and low turnover rates. Employees reported increased self-efficacy, autonomy, improved well-being and empowerment, improved mental, emotional and physical health as there were low levels of burnout and stress, and organizational commitment (Donley, 2021). Ahakwa et al. (2021) investigated the relationship between a positive work environment and employee engagement on employee commitment in an organization. Seven hundred twenty employees from the banking sector participated in the research, and the structural equation modeling technique was used to analyze data. According to study findings, there was a positive relationship between a positive work environment and employee productivity. Employee engagement may result in increased commitment and improved performance attributed to the organization’s feeling of being valued and appreciated (Ahakwa et al., 2021). Jaskyte et al. (2020) studied the role of employee values and attitudes towards work environment and creativity in the United States and Lithuania. Two hundred sixty-five participants participated in the study, and data were collected through multiple social media outlets and an online survey. After performing data analysis, Jaskyte et al. (2020) found that work environments that supported work creativity and fare-free flow of information may increase employee commitment in an organization, resulting in increased work output. Pawirosumarto et al. (2017) explored the association between work environment, leadership style, and organizational culture on job satisfaction. A sample of 642 employees took part in the research, and data was collected by using questionnaires. The structural Equation Modelling (SEM) method was used in data analysis. The results revealed that work environment, leadership style, and organizational culture positively impact job satisfaction because employees result in increased retention and increased productivity (Pawirosumarto et al., 2017). In addition, leadership style had a positive effect on employee performance, which may result from a positive relationship between employees and leaders (Pawirosumarto et al., 2017). As evidenced by the above literature, a positive working environment had significant benefits like increased employee engagement, performance, productivity, commitment, and job satisfaction, resulting in increased retention and achievement of some of the set organizational goals. In addition, employees too benefited as they felt valued, respected, recognized, and felt a sense of belonging, resulting in work creativity and innovations. Work environment and employee motivation, job satisfaction and turnover intentions Researchers have linked employee motivation, job satisfaction and turnover intentions to work environment. For instance, Al Sabei et al. (2020) examined nursing work environment, turnover intention, job burnout, and quality of care: the moderating role of job satisfaction. The findings show a strong link between a positive work environment, employee job satisfaction, and turnover intentions. Wan et al. (2018) investigated effects of work environment and job characteristics on the turnover intention of experienced nurses: The mediating role of work engagement. The findings shows that work environment influences employee turnover intentions, especially job-related characteristics within the work environment. Bakkal et al. (2019) explored toxic leadership and turnover intention: Mediating role of job satisfaction. Thie study findings show negative effects of toxic leadership on job satisfaction and turnover intention as well as understand if job satisfaction of nurses and hospital employees has a mediating effect between toxic leadership perceptions (self-seeking, negative state of mind, selfishness, in appreciativeness) and turnover intention. Leaders need to fight toxic leadership in their organizations to create a positive work environment. Existing literature presents overwhelming empirical evidence on the association between toxic leadership and employee organizational commitment. One of the prime indicators of organizational commitment is employees’ turnover intention. Muaaz & Khurram (2020) examined the impact of toxic leadership on job-related outcomes such as employee engagement and turnover intention in the Pakistani banking sector. Using a structural equation model in SmartPLS, Muaaz & Khurram (2020) established toxic leadership adversely affected employee engagement and psychological well-being. Employee engagement and well-being, in turn, significantly increased employees’ turnover intention. Evidence for the association between toxic leadership and employee commitment was also presented in research by Bakkal et al. (2019). However, Bakkal et al. (2019) restricted their analysis to the healthcare sector, where 658 participants were recruited from three public universities in Turkey. In their findings, Bakkal et al. (2019) reported various perceptions of leadership toxicity such as selfishness, appreciativeness, and self-seeking behaviors among leaders. Additionally, Bakkal et al. (2019) established that toxic leadership adversely affected employee job satisfaction, which reduced employees’ organizational commitment and intention to stay in their respective organizations. A dominant construct of toxic leadership that has been widely used in the existing literature is abusive supervision, which refers to employees’ perceptions of their leaders’ consistent use of verbal and non-verbal hostility. For instance, Jabbar et al. (2020) used a sample of 255 employees to examine the consequences of abusive leadership in the banking sector. In their findings, Jabbar et al. (2020) reported that toxic leadership was prevalent in the banking sectors of developing countries. Most importantly, Jabbar et al. (2020) said abusive leadership had deleterious effects on employee organizational commitment. As part of their future research recommendations, Jabbar et al. (2020) called for more research on the role of emotional intelligence in curbing leadership toxicity in contemporary organizations. Similarly, Abdallah and Mostafa (2021) also conceptualized toxic leadership as abusive supervision where leaders used negative comments based on target employees’ physical appearance, race, gender, or socioeconomic status. Abdallah and Mostafa (2021) hypothesized that such a form of leadership was negatively associated with organizational citizenship behaviors, which typically predict employees’ commitment to their tasks and their organizations at large. Using a sample of 486 nurses from several hospitals, Abdallah and Mostafa (2021) performed a multiple linear regression to determine how leadership toxicity affected the nurses’ organizational citizenship behaviors. In their findings, Abdallah and Mostafa (2021) reported toxic leadership was associated with the development of undesirable citizenship behaviors such as lack of organizational commitment and diminished employee motivation. Yaghi (2019) conceptualized toxic leadership as consisting of several elements such as bullying, intimidation, manipulation, and narcissism. Yaghi (2019) collected qualitative data from a sample size of seven senior executives to establish whether such toxic leadership had any effects on employee commitment and motivation. One of the key themes that emerged from the qualitative data was that toxic behaviors from board members such as narcissism, manipulation, and intimidation reduced the commitment of senior executives. The participants indicated that such toxic leadership from board members made them lose interest in pushing corporate agenda and consider quitting their positions as senior executives. Brouwers and Paltu (2020) examined the impact of toxic leadership employees’ intention to stay in their respective organizations. Using a sample of 600 semi-skilled and unskilled employees in the manufacturing sector, Brouwers and Paltu (2020) established that leadership toxicity significantly reduced the employees’ commitment to remaining in their respective organizations. According to Brouwers and Paltu (2020), when employees perceive their organizations as tolerant to toxic leadership, they are likely to respond by developing a negative attitude towards their job, leaders, and the entire organization. An inevitable consequence of a sustained negative attitude is increased chances of employee turnover. Zaabi et al. (2018) examined the association between leadership toxicity and organizational trust and cohesiveness in a different study. Following their literature review, Zaabi et al. (2018) had conceptualized corporate trust and cohesiveness as predictors of employee motivation. Using a sample of 600 healthcare employers in the United Arab Emirates, Zaabi et al. (2018) established a strong negative association between leadership toxicity and organizational trust and cohesiveness. According to Zaabi et al. (2018), leaders who displayed non-toxic behaviors were more likely to value the efforts of their employees. The employees, in turn, were more likely to develop trust in their leaders and become more motivated to perform their tasks exceptionally. Similar findings were reported by Amutenya (2019), who examined whether leadership toxicity had any association with employee motivation. According to Amutenya (2019), elements of leadership toxicity include bullying, manipulation, and lack of regard for employees’ well-being. Using an experimental design with a sample of 66 employees from an organization in Windhoek, Amutenya (2019) established that toxic leadership reduced employee engagement levels. A reduction in employee engagement levels subsequently increased employees’ intention to leave the organization. Apart from the impact of toxic leadership on employee commitment and motivation, existing literature also presents overwhelming evidence on the negative role of toxic leadership in reducing employees’ job satisfaction levels. Job satisfaction is the general attitude of an employer towards the job, workplace conditions, the leaders in the workplace, the quality of interactions among employees and leaders, and the overall organization itself (Sharma, 2017). Based on their systematic literature review, Sharma (2017) explored various elements of toxic leadership that reduce job satisfaction. According to Sharma (2017), toxic leaders are self-centered and cannot withstand criticism; hence are more likely to develop destructive relationships with their followers. As a consequence, employees may develop job-related stress and decreased motivation. The observations of Sharma (2017) were confirmed in an empirical study conducted by Sharma (2017) on the relationship between toxic leadership, and employee job satisfaction Sharma (2017) used a sample of 130 higher education instructors from Sarawak in Malaysia. In their findings, Sharma (2017) reported that even though the levels of toxic leadership in Malaysian institutions of higher learning were generally low, a negative association was observed between toxicity and the tutors’ job satisfaction. Uysal (2019) examined the moderating effect of leadership toxicity on the association between job stress and job satisfaction. Uysal (2019) conceptualized abusive leadership using Reed’s (2004) leadership toxicity syndrome model. In their model, Reed (2004) identified three main elements of leadership toxicity syndrome; leader’s lack of concern for employee’s welfare, a lack of interpersonal skills, and employees’ perception of the leader as being selfish. Using a structural equation model design, Uysal (2019) established that while there was a negative association between job stress and job satisfaction, leadership toxicity was a strong moderator of this relationship. In another similar study, Bakkal et al. (2019) established that employees’ job satisfaction significantly reduces when they perceive their leader as selfish and having a personality that does not promote an organizational climate conducive to work. Most importantly, Bakkal et al. (2019) reported that employees’ job satisfaction reduced drastically when the toxic leader dominated the organization. Hinen explored the concept of toxic leadership and its impact on job satisfaction in the military sector using a phenomenological design. Notably, Hinen (2019) interviewed a sample of 23 ex-military officers from the United States. Mainly, Hinen (2019) focused on the lived experiences of the ex-military officers regarding their experience with toxic leaders in the U.S. military. One of the key themes that emerged from the qualitative data collected was that military officers mainly resign due to intimidation and lack of concern for their well-being due to toxic leadership. However, a positive association between toxic leadership and job satisfaction has also been reported in the existing literature. In one such study, Zaabi et al. (2018) examined the impact of toxic leadership on extrinsic and intrinsic job satisfaction. Intrinsic job satisfaction is associated with the specific tasks that constitute the job, while extrinsic satisfaction has more to do with the work environment and compensation. In their study, Zaabi et al. (2018) reported toxic leadership was positively associated with extrinsic job satisfaction, a finding that was contrary to mainstream theory and empirical literature. However, the target population could partly explain the results, which typically consisted of unskilled and semi-skilled workers who perceived constant supervision as a sign of job security. Summary The chapter includes the search strategy and theoretical foundation informing the study. The chapter also includes discussions on the most relevant literature, including the following themes: concept of leadership defined, toxic leadership characteristics and role of leadership in creating a positive work environment, characteristics of positive work environment, benefits of a positive work environment, work environment and employee motivation, job satisfaction and turnover intentions. References Lyman, B., Biddulph, M. E., Hopper, V. G., Horton, M. K., Mendon, C. R., Thorum, K. C., & Smith, E. L. (2021). Creating a Work Environment Conducive to Organizational Learning. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 52(6), 281-285. https://doi.org/10.3928/00220124-20210514-07 The article presents valuable insights into how to create conducive environments in organizations. The authors discuss how leaders in healthcare settings can use organizational learning to create a conducive working environment in organizations for employees. The researchers established that organizations learning equip employees with relevant skills and competencies to execute challenging tasks, which is part of a conducive environment. This research is relevant to my dissertation because the literature will be used to investigate strategies for creating a conducive working environment for employees in organizations, such as through organizational learning. Men, L. R., & Yue, C. A. (2019). Creating a positive emotional culture: Effect of internal communication and impact on employee supportive behaviors. Public relations review, 45(3), 101764. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pubrev.2019.03.001 This study examined the effect of internal communication on positive emotional culture. The impact of positive emotional culture on supportive employee behaviors was also explored. Results showed symmetrical communication and responsive leadership communication cultivated positive emotional culture. Additionally, a positive emotional culture of joy, companionate love, pride, and gratitude fostered organizational citizenship behavior and employee advocacy. This research is relevant to my dissertation because the article will be used to understand how effective communication and positive culture promotes the creation of a positive environment in organizations. Büter, J. B. (2020). The role of HRM in creating an Inclusive Work Environment to foster Employee-driven Innovation (Master’s thesis, University of Twente). The article; discusses the role of HRm in creating an inclusive work environment. According to the study findings, HRM requirement practices such as retention, employee development and promotion, and employee safety in the workplace played an important role in creating an inclusive working environment. Inclusivity in the workplace is a key component of a conducive workplace. This research is relevant to my dissertation because the article will be used to understand the role of HRM in creating a conducive environment in the workplace. Matos, K., O’Neill, O., & Lei, X. (2018). Toxic leadership and the masculinity contest culture: How “win or die” cultures breed abusive leadership. Journal of Social Issues, 74(3), 500-528. https://doi.org/10.1111/josi.12284 Matos et al. (2018) investigated the relationship between toxic leadership style and organizational culture. The study results provide important insights into how toxic cultures retain employees despite their largely detrimental effects on job attitudes and well-being, which aligns with my research. Bhandarker, A., & Rai, S. (2019). Toxic leadership: emotional distress and coping strategy. International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, 22(1), 65-78. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJOTB-03-2018-0027 Bhandarker and Rai (2019 explored the distressing impact of toxic leadership on the mental state of the subordinates and examine the unique coping mechanisms used by them to deal with such leaders. This research is relevant to my dissertation because the article examined the relationship between psychological distress and coping strategy used by subordinates to deal with the toxic leader, a key area of my dissertation. Wan, Q., Li, Z., Zhou, W., & Shang, S. (2018). Effects of work environment and job characteristics on the turnover intention of experienced nurses: The mediating role of work engagement. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 74(6), 1332-1341. https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.13528 The researchers sought to assess turnover intention among experienced nurses and explore the effects of work environment, job characteristics and work engagement on turnover intention. Seven hundred seventy-eight experienced nurses from seven hospitals were surveyed on their work engagement, job characteristics, work environment, and turnover intention in March-May 2017. The study findings showed that work engagement fully mediated the effect of job characteristics on turnover intention and partially mediated the effect of work environment on turnover intention, signifying the influence of work environment on turnover intentions among employees. This research is relevant to my dissertation because the article will be used to understand how work environment influences employee turnover intentions, especially job-related characteristics within the work environment. Al Sabei, S. D., Labrague, L. J., Miner Ross, A., Karkada, S., Albashayreh, A., Al Masroori, F., & Al Hashmi, N. (2020). Nursing work environment, turnover intention, job burnout, and quality of care: the moderating role of job satisfaction. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 52(1), 95-104. https://doi.org/10.1111/jnu.12528 The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to assess predictors of the turnover intention, burnout, and perceived quality of care among nurses working in Oman, and (b) to examine the potential moderating role of job satisfaction on the relationship between work environment and nurse turnover intention. Logistic regression analysis revealed that working in a favorable environment was associated with less turnover intention, but only when job satisfaction was high. This research is relevant to my dissertation because the article will discuss the link between a positive work environment, employee job satisfaction, and turnover intentions. Nantsupawat, A., Kunaviktikul, W., Nantsupawat, R., Wichaikhum, O. A., Thienthong, H., & Poghosyan, L. (2017). Effects of nurse work environment on job dissatisfaction, burnout, intention to leave. International nursing review, 64(1), 91-98. https://doi.org/10.1111/inr.12342 The authors investigated how the work environment affects job dissatisfaction, burnout, and intention to leave among nurses in Thailand. Nurses working in university hospitals with better work environments had significantly less job dissatisfaction, intention to leave, and burnout. This research is relevant to my dissertation because the findings will understand how a positive work environment influences employee retention. Kundu, S. C., & Lata, K. (2017). Effects of supportive work environment on employee retention: Mediating role of organizational engagement. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 25(4), 703-722. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJOA-12-2016-1100 The purpose of the study was to investigate the mediating effect of organizational engagement in the relationship between supportive work environment (SWE) and employee retention. The findings suggest that SWE plays a crucial role in predicting employee retention. Organizational engagement partially mediates the relationship between SWE and employee retention. This research is relevant to my dissertation because the article will investigate the role of a supportive working environment on employee retention in organizations. Lee, H. F., Chiang, H. Y., & Kuo, H. T. (2019). Relationship between authentic leadership and nurses’ intent to leave: The mediating role of work environment and burnout. Journal of nursing management, 27(1), 52-65. https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.12648 This study aimed to explore the mediating effects of work environment and burnout on the relationship between authentic leadership and the intention of nurses to leave their job. Work environment and burnout mediated the effect of authentic leadership on intent to leave among nurses. This research is relevant to my dissertation because the results will be used in the present study to investigate the role of leadership in creating a positive working environment for employees in the workplace to improve their job satisfaction. Ahakwa, I., Yang, J., Tackie, E. A., & Atingabili, S. (2021). The Influence of Employee engagement, work environment and job satisfaction on organizational commitment and performance of employees: A sampling weights in PLS path modelling. SEISENSE Journal of Management, 4(3), 34-62. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7597-4227 This study explored the link between employee engagement, work environment, and job satisfaction on organizational commitment and employee performance in the Banking sector considering moderated-mediated interaction. The study findings showed that organizational commitment fully mediated the link between work environment and employee performance in the WPLS-SEM model compared to PLS-SEM with partial mediation. This research is relevant to my dissertation because the findings will be used in this study to understand the influence of the work environment on employee engagement and commitment to organizations. Jaskyte, K., Butkevičienė, R., Danusevičienė, L., & Jurkuvienė, R. (2020). Employees’ attitudes and values toward creativity, work environment, and job satisfaction in human service employees. Creativity Research Journal, 32(4), 394-402. https://doi.org/10.1080/10400419.2020.1821160 The authors assessed the relationships between employees’ attitudes and values toward creativity, work environment, and job satisfaction in human service employees in the United States and Lithuania. The work environment was a significant predictor of job satisfaction in both countries. This research is relevant to my dissertation because the article will investigate the influence of a positive work environment on employee job satisfaction which influences their turnover intention, including how supporting creativity and free flow of information among employees improves their sense of commitment to an organization. Nasir, M. (2020). Leadership style along with work environment can have considerable influence on employee performance. Point Of View Research Management, 1(3), 48-53. https://journal.accountingpointofview.id/index.php/POVREMA/article/view/115 This study aimed to analyze the influence on employee performance of leadership style and work environment. The findings showed that employee performance was affected positively and significantly by the leadership style and work environment. This research is relevant to my dissertation because the article will be used to understand the influence of leadership on relating a conducive work environment in organizations. Kılıç, M., & Günsel, A. (2019). The dark side of the leadership: The effects of toxic leaders on employees. European Journal of Social Sciences, 2(2), 51-56. https://revistia.org/index.php/ejss#page=51 This research is relevant to my dissertation because the article presents an in-depth analysis of the effects of toxic leaders on employees. The article will investigate the effects of toxic leaders on employees in the workplace as far as creating a positive work environment for employees is contextualized. Uysal, H. T. (2019). The mediation role of toxic leadership in the effect of job stress on job satisfaction. International Journal of Business, 24(1), 55-73. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Htezcan-Uysal/publication/331249551_The_Mediation_Role_of_Toxic_Leadership_in_the_Effect_of_Job_Stress_on_Job_Satisfaction/links/5ce475b5a6fdccc9ddc4a97f/The-Mediation-Role-of-Toxic-Leadership-in-the-Effect-of-Job-Stress-on-Job-Satisfaction.pdf This research is relevant to my dissertation because the authors purposed to test the effect of job stress on job satisfaction, to define whether the employees’ perceptions of a toxic leader affect the significant relationship between these two variables. The study findings will investigate the influence of leadership on the workplace environment, including employee job satisfaction and intention to leave organizations. Bakkal, E., Serener, B., & Myrvang, N. A. (2019). Toxic leadership and turnover intention: Mediating role of job satisfaction. Revista de cercetare si interventie sociala, 66, 88. https://www.ceeol.com/search/article-detail?id=816090 This research is relevant to my dissertation because the authors investigate the effect of toxic leadership on job satisfaction and turnover intention as well as understand if job satisfaction of nurses and hospital employees has a mediating effect between toxic leadership perceptions (self-seeking, negative state of mind, selfishness, in appreciativeness) and turnover intention. Leaders need to fight toxic leadership in their organizations to create a positive work environment. Singh, N., Sengupta, S., & Dev, S. (2018). Toxic leadership: The most menacing form of leadership. Dark sides of organizational behavior and leadership, 147-164. https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.75462 This research is relevant to my dissertation because the authors address the paucities and clarifies the nature, process, reasons and consequences of “toxic” leadership. The authors review, summarize and integrate the existing literature on toxic leadership to draw nomological distinctions amongst different dark leadership constructs and eventually present stimulators and behavioral symptoms of toxic leadership. Ho, B. C., Mustamil, N. M., & Jayasingam, S. (2021). Building a conducive, engaged, and learning working environment through sustainable and impactful organisational culture. International Journal of Innovation and Sustainable Development, 15(3), 280-304. https://www.inderscienceonline.com/doi/abs/10.1504/IJISD.2021.115959 This research is relevant to my dissertation because the authors provide an in-depth analysis of using organizational culture as a sustainable tool to bring about lasting organizational ecosystems that contribute to employee engagement and lifelong learning. The findings show that a conducive working environment can be created with proactive nurturing of organizational knowledge as the inherent culture of the organization. Smith, N., & Fredricks-Lowman, I. (2020). Conflict in the workplace: a 10-year review of toxic leadership in higher education. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 23(5), 538-551. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603124.2019.1591512 The research fits my study because the authors explore how the research in this area has evolved since then, the authors use thematic synthesis to examine the literature on toxic leadership in higher education from three contextual lenses: understanding toxic leadership; reviewing the influence of toxic leadership on organizational culture and employee morale; summarizing implications for managing resiliency in toxic environments. The above concepts are linked to my study this providing in-depth information for analysis. Malik, M. S., Sattar, S., Younas, S., & Nawaz, M. K. (2019). The workplace deviance perspective of employee responses to workplace bullying: The moderating effect of Toxic Leadership and mediating effect of emotional exhaustion. Review of Integrative Business and Economics Research, 8(1), 33-50. https://www.sibresearch.org/uploads/3/4/0/9/34097180/riber_8-1_m18-024_33-50.pdf The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between workplace bullying and workplace deviance. This research is relevant to my dissertation because the businesses leaders must pursue a friendly workplace environment to save the workforce from the confrontation with workplace bullying. Kurtulmuş, B. E. (2020). Toxic leadership and workplace bullying: The role of followers and possible coping strategies. The Palgrave Handbook of Workplace Well-Being, 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-02470-3_24-1 The articles explore how under toxic leadership workplace bullying victims struggle and engage into coping strategies in order to reduce stress-related health and mental problems and what is the role of followers in this process if there is any. This research is relevant to my dissertation because within this context toxic leadership practices may also cause increase in workplace bullying behaviors among followers, and they play an important role on this relationship, leading to attrition and burnout. Winn, G. L., & Dykes, A. C. (2019). Identifying toxic leadership and building worker resilience. Professional Safety, 64(03), 38-45. https://onepetro.org/PS/article-abstract/64/03/38/33604/Identifying-Toxic-Leadership-and-Building-Worker This article seeks to help management understand how organizational conditions can allow some leaders to become toxic. This research is relevant to my dissertation because it describes how workers and managers can defend themselves and their organizations against toxic leaders. Toxic leaders work for themselves or against the goals of their organizations, resulting in a dysfunctional environment characterized by high turnover rates. Abbas, M., & Saad, G. B. (2020). An empirical investigation of toxic leadership traits impacts on workplace climate and harassment. Talent Development & Excellence, 12(3), 2317-2333. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Muzaffar-Abbas-5/publication/343038418_An_Empirical_Investigation_of_Toxic_Leadership_Traits_Impacts_on_Workplace_Climate_and_Harassment/links/5f124ace299bf1e548c0ba21/An-Empirical-Investigation-of-Toxic-Leadership-Traits-Impacts-on-Workplace-Climate-and-Harassment.pdf The aim of this study was to highlight the impact of toxic leadership behavior at workplace climate with mediation of work place harassment (WPH) in textile industry of Pakistan. This research is relevant to my dissertation because toxic leadership behavior has a strong negative impact on workplace climate results in low degree of employee performance, lack of motivation and absenteeism, which affect employee retention. Matos, K., O’Neill, O., & Lei, X. (2018). Toxic leadership and the masculinity contest culture: How “win or die” cultures breed abusive leadership. Journal of Social Issues, 74(3), 500-528. https://doi.org/10.1111/josi.12284 This research is relevant to my dissertation because results provide important insights into how toxic cultures retain employees despite their largely detrimental effects on job attitudes and well-being, including burnout. Williams, K. R. (2018). Toxic leadership in defense and federal workplaces: sabotaging the mission and innovation. International Journal of Public Leadership, 14(3), 179-198. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJPL-04-2018-0023 The purpose of this paper was to discuss toxic leadership, its cost, effects and impact and provides recommendations for prevention and intervention. This research is relevant to my dissertation because results will be used to explain how toxic leadership degrades performance among employees. Organizations can effectively address toxic leadership through purposeful, cultural reinforcement and leader development, increasing efficiency and reducing waste. Labrague, L. J., Nwafor, C. E., & Tsaras, K. (2020). Influence of toxic and transformational leadership practices on nurses’ job satisfaction, job stress, absenteeism and turnover intention: A cross‐sectional study. Journal of Nursing Management, 28(5), 1104-1113. https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.13053 This study examined the influence of toxic and transformational leadership practices on nurses’ job satisfaction, psychological distress, absenteeism and intent to leave the organization or the nursing profession. This research is relevant to my dissertation because results will be used to explain how employee retention strategies can include measures to foster transformational leadership and derail toxic leadership practices in nurse managers through evidence-based education, training and professional development in the workplaces. Brouwers, M., & Paltu, A. (2020). Toxic leadership: Effects on job satisfaction, commitment, turnover intention and organisational culture within the South African manufacturing industry. SA Journal of Human Resource Management, 18(1), 1-11. https://hdl.handle.net/10520/EJC-1fa457614d This research is relevant to my dissertation because the results provided organizations’ insight into the possible consequences of toxic leadership on employees and the organizations’ culture. Akca, M. (2017). The impact of toxic leadership on intention to leave of employees. International Journal of Economics, Business and Management Research, 1(4), 285-290. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/321359212_The_Impact_of_Toxic_Leadership_on_Intention_to_Leave_of_Employees The study aimed to find the interaction between toxic leadership perception and intention to leave of employees. This research is relevant to my dissertation because the results will be used to explain the relationship between toxic leadership perception and intention to leave of employees. Labrague, L. J., Lorica, J., Nwafor, C. E., & Cummings, G. G. (2021). Predictors of toxic leadership behaviour among nurse managers: A cross‐sectional study. Journal of Nursing Management, 29(2), 165-176. https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.13130 The purpose of the study was to identify the predictors of toxic leadership behavior in nurse managers. This research is relevant to my dissertation because the results will be used to identify key predictors of toxic leadership behavior in organizations. Labrague, L. J., Lorica, J., Nwafor, C. E., van Bogaert, P., & Cummings, G. G. (2020). Development and psychometric testing of the toxic leadership behaviors of nurse managers (ToxBH‐NM) scale. Journal of nursing management, 28(4), 840-850. https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.13008 This paper describes the development and testing of the psychometric property of the Toxic Leadership Behaviors of Nurse Managers (ToxBH-NM) Scale. This research is relevant to my dissertation because the results will be used to describe how ToxBH-NM Scale can aid nurse managers in better understanding and managing their own leadership behaviors within their organizations and in fostering desirable work outcomes among employees, a positive work climate and overall organizational success. Vahdati, H., Saedi, A., & Moumeni, M. (2020). The analysis and investigation of the effect of toxic leadership on human resource turnover via the mediation of organizational obstruction. Organizational Culture Management, 18(4), 661-682. https://dx.doi.org/10.22059/jomc.2020.288528.1007880 This study examined the effect of toxic leadership on the human resource turnover via the mediation of organizational obstruction. This research is relevant to my dissertation because the results will be used to discuss how toxic leadership contribute to increased human resource turnover rates in organizations. Hamidizadeh, A., Zarei Matin, H., & Zafari, H. (2017). Investigating the effect of toxic leadership style and dysfunctional behaviors on employees’ outcomes and job attitudes. Organizational Behaviour Studies Quarterly, 6(3), 1-32. http://obs.sinaweb.net/article_28804.html?lang=en The purpose of this study is to identify the effect of this type of leadership style and the dysfunctional behaviors of these leaders on the occupational outcomes and attitudes of the employees of government agencies in Qom. This research is relevant to my dissertation because the results will be used to discuss how toxic leadership negatively influences organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and employee retention in organizations. Michael, A. (2019). A handbook of human resource management practice. http://18.104.22.168:8080/jspui/bitstream/123456789/794/1/Handbook%20of%20 Human%20Resource.Management.Practice.pdf This resource has been globally accepted as the handbook for human resource personnel that is used to understand the crucial concepts and information that any human resource manager should have, especially when dealing with employees from diverse backgrounds with varied beliefs. The human resource manager should be engaged in activities like management development, reward management, training employees, etc., which is related to my dissertation topic. Naile, I., & Selesho, J. M. (2014). The role of leadership in employee motivation. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(3), 175. https://www.mcser.org/journal/index.php/mjss/article/view/2131 This research is relevant to my dissertation since it analyzes the differences between transformational and autocratic leadership styles. The two leadership styles have impacts on employee motivation, behavior, and performance. Therefore, they noted that the specific leadership style adopted in an organization is essential in determining performance levels. Ramlall, S. (2004). A review of employee motivation theories and their implications for employee retention within organizations. Journal of American academy of business, 5(1/2), 52-63. https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.473.4070&rep=rep1&type=pdf#page=53 This research is relevant to my dissertation since it insists that the corporate world has become highly competitive; however, to survive the volatile market, organizations have to motivate their employees to outperform other firms. Additionally, through motivation, organizations can evaluate their achievements and evolution relating to the organization’s effectiveness. Bhandarker, A., & Rai, S. (2019). Toxic leadership: emotional distress and coping strategy. International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, 22(1), 65-78. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJOTB-03-2018-0027 The paper also examined the relationship between psychological distress and coping strategy used by subordinates to deal with the toxic leader. This research is relevant to my dissertation because the results will used to discuss between psychological distress and coping strategy used by subordinates to deal with the toxic leader. Shahreki, J. (2019). The Use and Effect of Human Resource Information Systems on Human Resource Management Productivity. Journal of Soft Computing and Decision Support Systems, 6(5), 1-8. http://jscdss.com/index.php/files/article/view/205 This research is relevant to my dissertation since it seeks to understand the effects of information technology in business production, specifically the relationship between HR information systems and increased productivity. This shows the importance of applying technology in employee management and its potential advantages. Shahzadi, I., Javed, A., Pirzada, S. S., Nasreen, S., & Khanam, F. (2014). Impact of employee motivation on employee performance. European Journal of Business and Management, 6(23), 159-166. https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/234625730.pdf This research is relevant to my dissertation because it insists that employee motivation is the force that pushes workers to want to achieve specific organizational goals and objectives. Organizations today are striving to effectively use their human resource and finance departments for maximum productivity. The authors emphasize that employee motivation should be through proper training and intrinsic rewards within organizations. Skudiene, V., & Auruskeviciene, V. (2012). The contribution of corporate social responsibility to internal employee motivation. Baltic Journal of management. https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/17465261211197421/full/html?mobileUi=0&fullSc=1&mbSc=1&fullSc=1 This research is relevant to my dissertation since it seeks to evaluate whether an employee’s internal and external motivation is an essential CSR (corporate social responsibility) program. They find out that both internal and external CSR programs are direly related to employee motivation. Werner, J. M., & DeSimone, R. L. R. L. (2011). Human resource development. Cengage Learning. https://www.okindustrie.com/cms/sites/default/files/webform/pdf-human-resource-development-jon-m-werner-randy-l-desimone-pdf-download-free-book-7540d89.pdf This research is relevant from my dissertation because it gives several potential strategic issues that should be addressed by the human resource officers in organizations that relate to employee productivity, such as employee behavior, rewards, and HRD programs implementations, training, etc. the book also provides us with information regarding the processes, practices, and concepts that relate to human resource success in employee management. Reyhanoglu, M., & Akin, O. (2020). Impact of toxic leadership on the intention to leave: A research on permanent and contracted hospital employees. Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences. , Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1108/JEAS-05-2020-0076 This study investigated the impact of toxic leadership, organizational justice and organizational silence on hospital employees’ intention to leave their jobs. The article aligns with my study because the findings show that toxic leadership is directly and negatively related to organizational justice, while all dimensions of organizational silence and the intention to leave are positively related, providing information that may be used to study the influence of toxic leadership on employees’ intention to leave their jobs. Dobbs, J. M., & Do, J. J. (2019). The impact of perceived toxic leadership on cynicism in officer candidates. Armed Forces & Society, 45(1), 3-26. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0095327X17747204 This study applies a dark side of leadership framework from an organizational and leadership perspective to examine the relationship between perceived toxic leadership and organizational cynicism in a military educational environment. The article aligns with my study because the findings will be used to discuss how positive relationship between toxic leadership and organizational cynicism, such that those who report having leaders with toxic characteristics are likely to have more negative attitudes toward their organization. Abrahamson, E., & Eisenman, M. (2008). Employee-management techniques: transient fads or trending fashions? Administrative Science Quarterly, 53(4), 719-744. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.2189/asqu.53.4.719 This research is relevant to my dissertation because it provides us with adequate information regarding how human resource managers can transform organizational labor to organizational outputs through job enrichment, management by objectives, total quality management strategy, and business process re-engineering. Managers should create a sense of progress and severity among employees to foster success. Al-Madi, F. N., Assal, H., Shrafat, F., & Zeglat, D. (2017). The impact of employee motivation on organizational commitment. European Journal of Business and Management, 9(15), 134-145. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Fayiz_Shrafat/publication/343141142_The_Impact_of_Employee_Motivation_on_Organizational_Commitment/links/5f18c0f3299bf1720d5c898b/The-Impact-of-Employee-Motivation-on-Organizational-Commitment.pdf This research is relevant to my dissertation authors discuss how motivated employees works best in the interest of the organizations that leads them towards growth, prosperity and productivity. The employee motivation and organizational effectiveness are directly related. Organizations should work out and make such policies and organizational structures that support employee recognition and empowerment. Boon, C., Den Hartog, D. N., & Lepak, D. P. (2019). A systematic review of human resource management systems and their measurement. Journal of Management, 45(6), 2498-2537. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0149206318818718 This resource is essential for my dissertation since it handles how human resource systems in an organization affect human resource activities, which leads to effects on the individuals working in an organization. It is essential that the human resource systems are aligned to the organizational goals and employee’s activities. Chiang, C. F., & Jang, S. S. (2018). An expectancy theory model for hotel employee motivation. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 27(2), 313-322. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278431907000564 This research is relevant to my dissertation since the authors seek to check the best methods that can be used in motivating hotel workers. Some essential components included; expectancy, extrinsic instrumentality, intrinsic instrumentality, extrinsic valence, and intrinsic valence. The authors found out that intrinsic motivation has better results than extrinsic motivational factors, which should be applied more by hotel managers for employee motivation. Girdwichai, L., & Sriviboon, C. (2020). Employee motivation and performance: do the work environment and the training matter?. Journal of Security & Sustainability Issues, 9. https://web.b.ebscohost.com/abstract?direct=true&profile=ehost&scope=site&authtype=crawler&jrnl=20297017&AN=141606530&h=GgKpCbj2teR4EstpuNZV0a0FOzbZh5FFkJkKhM4S2%2flZ64In7hud4LZXLQu7bcjmVaj6V6RZ7XBvfSla9KJG0g%3d%3d&crl=c&resultNs=AdminWebAuth&resultLocal=ErrCrlNotAuth&crlhashurl=login.aspx%3fdirect%3dtrue%26profile%3dehost%26scope%3dsite%26authtype%3dcrawler%26jrnl%3d20297017%26AN%3d141606530 The research seeks to understand the effects of employee motivation on performance; however, the researcher further seeks to understand the roles of training and work environment in employee performance and motivation. A survey methodology was applied there conclusions showed that a good work environment should be available for employees to deliver their best. Therefore, this study will relate to my topic since it will understand the importance of good work environments like higher pay, solving conflicts, guidance, counseling, safety, etc., effects on employee motivation and performance. Islam, R., & Ismail, A. Z. H. (2018). Employee motivation: a Malaysian perspective. International Journal of Commerce and Management. https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/10569210810921960/full/html?casa_token=1jKhtthysY8AAAAA:-nCNws6QvK1aWm21P2i-ZPYVLc-6x7uGRsEGn8utZel8dzWAkmLD1-nZlm4c0a2zUgoi7Fb_m66Ml1tz6gf7VEKkY7_G5jP9Is257qJxQUk8WY8Qb26mDQ This research is relevant to my dissertation since it insists that ensuring the people perform their best is among the manager’s nightmares; however, the best way to increase performance is by motivation, which simply involves influencing people to deliver objectives. Employee motivation is directly proportional to the overall corporate performance. Kim, D. (2017). Employee Motivation:” Just Ask Your Employees.” Seoul Journal of Business, 12. https://s-space.snu.ac.kr/handle/10371/1819 The authors of this article argue that employee motivation is among the most sophisticated subjects today that organizational leaderships have to face for overall success. However, for employees to be fully motivated, managers ought to understand differences in individual needs and identify varied reward systems that enhance everyone’s ability. Kovach, K. A. (2018). Employee motivation: Addressing a crucial factor in your organization’s performance. Employment Relations Today, 22(2), 93-107. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ert.3910220209 This research is relevant to my dissertation since it questioned over one thousand employees and managers on topics regarding rewards motivation. They noted that higher-paid employees were happier with their jobs, which is directly related to good performance. Additionally, they noted high-paying job is more interesting than the work itself. Lăzăroiu, G. (2017). Employee motivation and job performance. Linguistic and Philosophical Investigations, (14), 97-102. https://www.ceeol.com/search/article-detail?id=290576 This research is relevant to my dissertation since it analyzes essential motivation determinants within any organization; additionally, higher motivation is attributed to better performance. Finally, the article provides the comparison and relationships between employee job performance levels and level of employee satisfaction while remembering that satisfaction is fostered by motivation. Mak, B. L., & Sockel, H. (2001). A confirmatory factor analysis of IS employee motivation and retention. Information & management, 38(5), 265-276. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378720600000550 This research is relevant to my dissertation since it analyses some crucial elements directly related to my studies, such as how employee turnover rates can be gradually reduced through motivation and its relationship with job satisfaction, career development, and the employee perception towards their managers. McKnight, D. H., Ahmad, S., & Schroeder, R. G. (2001). When do feedback, incentive control, and autonomy improve morale? The importance of employee-management relationship closeness. Journal of Managerial Issues, 466-482. https://www.jstor.org/stable/40604365?casa_token=SCIJydLDrycAAAAA:wsl6QOwrGfGfWZNxB7tKvKQA0yQI-naiJacngsg7O5JLV0Yg8nvsuhvh3nbWCEr-AKFKnV5b-mAeuOwKxydqgeX9klx-ijRUx7hFN9x0Px655TRfa4nd8Q This research is relevant to my dissertation because it gives us potential tools that managers should use during employee control and when managers should lift or lower their employee’s motivation to perform. The authors argue that the best motivation method is increasing the relationship between the employer and employee, therefore, promoting teamwork and a harmonious working environment. Other motivation methods include autonomy, incentives, and feedback. Rao, P., & Teegen, H. (2009). Human resource management. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.550.4015 The authors in this research carried out systematic research to understand how human resource managers tend to increase productivity, especially for multinational companies, through employee motivation and positive organizational culture within my dissertation’s scope. The authors recommend that any implemented HR activities should be within the specific operations of the company and meant to promote personal and professional growth for employees. William, A. N. (2010). Employee motivation and performance. Ultimate Companion Limited. https://www.theseus.fi/handle/10024/22787 This research is relevant to my dissertation since it evaluates how employee performance can be stimulated through motivation in the organization and how performance is directly related to motivation. Organizational managers have roles of ensuring there are competent and qualified officials to handle various organizational duties and monetary rewards are not compulsory for employee motivation; other alternatives like promotion, time off, etc., can be a good alternative. Viotti, S., Sottimano, I., Converso, D., & Guidetti, G. (2020). The relationship between psychosocial characteristics of the work environment and job satisfaction in an Italian public ECE service: A cross-lagged study. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 53, 464-475. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2020.06.002 This research is relevant to my dissertation because the present study confirms the results of previous literature suggesting that motivating factors are more strictly associated than hygiene factors with job satisfaction. Moreover, it expands current knowledge by highlighting the importance of examining both the directionality of associations between the psychosocial characteristics of the work environment and job satisfaction. Backhaus, R., van Rossum, E., Verbeek, H., Halfens, R. J., Tan, F. E., Capezuti, E., & Hamers, J. P. (2017). Work environment characteristics associated with quality of care in Dutch nursing homes: A cross-sectional study. International journal of nursing studies, 66, 15-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2016.12.001 The study examined the relationship between direct care staffing levels, work environment characteristics and perceived quality of care in Dutch nursing homes. This research is relevant to my dissertation because the findings suggest that team climate may be an important factor to consider when trying to improve quality of care. Generating more evidence on which work environment characteristics actually lead to better quality of care is needed. Lee, S. E., & Scott, L. D. (2018). Hospital nurses’ work environment characteristics and patient safety outcomes: A literature review. Western journal of nursing research, 40(1), 121-145. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0193945916666071 This research is relevant to my dissertation because this integrative literature review assesses the relationship between hospital nurses’ work environment characteristics and patient safety outcomes and recommends directions for future research based on examination of the literature, which is key area of interests for my study